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PSY 3061 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Resting membrane potentialII. action potentialIII. synaptic transmissionOutline of Current Lecture I. Answers to the first/second quizII. Action potentialIII. Synaptic transmissionIV. Neurotransmitters V. ReceptorsCurrent LectureI. Answers to the first/second quiza. According to Descarte, the ____ is where the soul meets body b. A ____ introduces variation in the gene pool  mutationc. The spinal chord belongs to the ___  central nervous systemd. Name the meninges from innermost to outermost  Pia, Arachnoid, Dura Matere. The cerebrum is folded into creases and ridges. What is the word we use for cortical "ridges?" gyrusf. If the trans-membrane potential (voltage) of a neuron is more positive than its resting potential, it is said to be ____________.  depolarizedg. Afferent is to efferent, as ___ is to ___  dorsal, ventral  refer to the slide with the cat/human (order of brain from spine going into the brain (the cephalons))i. in humans the structures of the brain can be dorsal or ventralii. posterior is towards the tail boneiii. orientation rotates about 90 degrees with diencephalon structuresThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.II. Action potentiala. What makes action potential more positive or negative? b. When the membrane potential of a cell becomes depolarized it triggers the action potentialc. Axon hillock d. Positive charges are entering the cell e. Efflux (outgoing) of negative charges III. Synaptic transmissiona. Enough positive charges enter the cell to reach threshold  sodium channels open trigger depolarization of other sodium channelsb. At the terminal end  depolarization of sodium triggers depolarization (opening) of voltage gated calcium (+ ion) channelsc. When action potential reached and depolarization of sodium channels  the calcium channels open and exocytosis happensd. Exocytosis fueled by calcium channels calcium enters cell and makes vesicles holding neurotransmitters to release the neurotransmitterse. Receptors on postsynaptic receptors are specific to type of neuron/neurotransmitter  influence channels to open or closef. Reuptake: re uptake of neurotransmitter that has already been released i. Sometimes too much neurotransmitters are released ii. Helps keep an equilibrium g. Chemical signaling in the brain must be very preciseIV. Neurotransmittersa. Bind to ligand-gated receptors  open/close channelsb. Ligand can be considered neurotransmitterc. Ligand gated channels open (or sometimes close) if a certain neurotransmitter bindsd. Ligand is a general term for anything that binds to a proteine. If all gates are closed, there is still the sodium/potassium pump and stays at a resting state. If the gates open the ions rush in and can affect the potential of the cell V. Receptorsa. Ionotropic receptors: directly effects an ion channeli. Receptor is essentially the same as a channelii. Directly attached to channelb. Metabotropic receptors: when neurotransmitter attaches to metabotropic receptor  releases a g proteini. Has a longer lasting effect ii. The g protein effects something else, not direct like the ionotropicc. Neural circuits are a web of EPSPs and IPSPsi. If one synapse if excitatory and one is inhibitory  effects will cancel


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