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WKU BIO 207C - Chapter 1

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BIO 207C 1st EditionLecture 1Chapter 1Microbes: Tiny but MightyI. Microbiology-study of living things that require magnification to be seena. Called microorganismsi. Microorganisms include:1. Bacteria2. Algae3. Helminths4. Protozoa5. Some fungiII. Virusesa. Although microscopic are not considered microorganismsb. Depend upon being in a cell to carry out their activitiesc. But, since it is involved in disease, other aspects of microbiology, they’re includedMicrobes and the PlanetI. Prokaryotes (bacteria) first arose about 3.5 billion years agoa. Only living inhabitants for almost 2 billion yearsb. Have obviously adapted to earth’s changing environmentII. Eukaryotes arose about 1.8 billion years agoa. Single celled giving rise to multicellular organismsIII. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in one important aspecta. Prokaryotes do not contain a true nucleusb. Eukaryotes do contain a true nucleusIV. Microbes are ubiquitious – everywhere! V. Evolutiona. Defined as the accumulation of changes occurring in organisms over time as they adapt to their environmentb. It is called a “theory” because it has been studied extensively and not been disprovenc. An example of evolution that one can see is the development of antibioticresistant bacteriaVI. Microbes shape our planet in many waysa. Photosynthesisi. Were first organisms to do thisii. The type that produces oxygen changed the atmosphere of the planet and lead to the use of oxygen in aerobic respirationMicrobes and HumansI. Humans have used microbes in a variety of ways over the yearsII. Genetic Engineeringa. Manipulates the genetics of organisms creating new products and genetically modified organisms (GMOs)III. Recombinant DNA technologya. Transfer of genetic material from one organism to another to alter the DNA and produce a specific productIV. Bioremediationa. Use of microbes to clean up toxic pollutantsV. Microbes harming humansa. Most microbes are benignb. Some are pathogens-those that cause diseasec. Statistics are staggeringVI. Microbes Harming Humansa. Seeing a rise in newly emerging and older emerging diseasesVII. Microbes harming humansa. Some diseases once considered noninfectious we now know involve microbial infectioni. Gastric ulcersii. Diabetesiii. Schizophreniaiv. Chronic infections such as multiple sclerosis, OCD, coronary heart disease and obesity may be linked to bacteria or viruses Role of the MicroscopeI. Anton von Leeuwenhoek credited with developing first microscopea. Observed microscopic creatures from a number of environments Microbes in HistoryI. Spontaneous GenerationLouis PasteurI. Developed Germ Theory of DiseaseII. Studied role of microbes in fermentation of alcoholic beveragesIII. Invented pasteurizationIV. Helped establish concept of immunityRobert Koch I. German physicianII. Proved the Germ TheoryIII. Formulated Koch’s postulates which could be used to link a specific microbe to a specific diseaseFundamental Characteristics of CellsI. Have some commonalities:a. Protoplasm is encased in a membraneb. Possess chromosomes made up of DNAc. Have ribosomes for protein synthesisd. Are complex in functionII. Also major differences:a. Prokaryotes – no nucleus, no organellesb. Eukaryotes – nucleus and organelles presentMacromoleculesI. Large moleculesa. Consist of subunits called monomersi. 4 main types1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic acidsCarbohydratesI. Commonly referred to as sugarsa. Common ones include:i. Glucoseii. Sucroseiii. Lactose b. Function to:i. Serve as structural componentsii. Nutrient and energy storesLipidsI. Include fats, phospholipids, and waxesa. Consists of glycerol and fatty acidsb. Used for storing energy, membrane components, waterproofingc. Contributes to the pathogenicity of some microbesi. Tuberculosis and leprosyProteinsI. Most plentiful macromolecule in cella. Made up of amino acidsb. Have several levels of structurec. Used as enzymes and antibodiesNucleic AcidsI. DNA and RNAa. Discussed later in this courseATPI. Adenosine Triphosphatea. High energy compoundb. Provides energy to do cellular workNaming, Classifying, and Identifying MicroorganismsI. Nomenclaturea. Assignment of names to individual organisms and the various taxonomic categoriesb. Binomial nomenclature is used in scienceII. Classificationa. Organization of organisms into groupsb. Start with the broadest grouping and become more specificc. Domain approach is now usedd. Kingdom are under domainse. Kingdom approachf. Domain approachi. 3 domains-based on cell type1. Eukarya- humans/animals2. Prokara- bacteria3. Archeae- extreme


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