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WVU POLS 102 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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POLS 102 1nd Edition STUDY GUIDE 1 There will be 10-15 multiple choice questions and there will be 7 or 8terms but you only pick 3 or 4 to identify. When you are doingidentification define the term and state why it is important. The essaywill be worth 30-45% of the test grade. Don’t forget to bring a blue book.Good luck!1. Politics – a. The process through which individuals and groups reach agreementson the course of common or collective action– Even as they disagree about the intended goals of that action.“Politics is about who gets what, when and how.” – Laswellb. Processes through which a society translates its values into public policy outcomes.- They often conflicti. Debates/votes in congress; Elections; Arguments with your roommatesii. Example: You try to convince your roommate to vote Republican, because it goes along with your values.-Values and interests used to get outcomes which have positive or negative implication on things that we care about.- This is why politics are so important and worthy of attention.2. Ideologies (relationship to values) – - Ideologies: a comprehensive, integrated set of views about government politics.- Values: principles which people believe in, often based on their understanding of what’s ethical or just. - Ideologies affect politics because people argue for different policy outcomes based on their different values – this is how conflict arises. These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Values and interests are used to get outcomes which have implicationon things we care about positively and negatively = why politics are important. 3. Legitimacy -the state of affairs in which the government is recognized as the just and proper ruler. - Why the actions of the government are viewed as legitimate:i. Tradition 1. Birth or monarchy2. People believe God gave specific people the right to be rulers (for example: Henry 8)ii. Charisma/Capabilities of Leaders1. Their willingness to manage resources, engage in brutality, etc. makes them a respectable leader.2. Example: Napoleoniii. Legal/Rational Reason (especially in democracies)1. Agreed upon based on a fair legal system through a procedural voting system2. Even if you disagree with who won an election, they won in a procedural, fair way3. However, not all actions are legitimate or in line with the constitution 4. Conformity Costs – The cost of living with a situation or outcome that you don’t like – an actual dollar amount.- The difference between what a people ideally would prefer and what the group with which that person makes collective decisions actually does. Individuals pay conformity costs whenever collective decisionsproduce policy outcomes that do not best serve their interests- Have an inverse relationship with transaction costs. - Why its hard for the government to pass laws that people don’t like. It’s hard for them to push conformity costs on people. - U.S. has high conformity costs5. Free Riding - there’s a benefit that people can enjoy and its non-excludable  Non-excludable – available to everyone, by its existence, even if you don’t produce it- Example: Clean Air, National Security, etc. A lot of people choose to use these resources without paying for them, because they can- “There’s a cost to create a benefit and there’s also an individual share of the benefit” - Olsen- But your individual share is so small it’s not worth it to pay your individual share- Everyone has this same incentive structure, so they use resources without paying for it6. Coordination – the management of decision necessary to create an outcomei. Sometimes done effectively or ineffectively ii. Bad Coordination – FEMA’s bad or lack of response to sending aid to Hurricane Katrina victims; however, they eventually turned it around and helped the victims out.iii. Good Coordination - it’s just a fact that the national government has moreresources than individual states. iv. Example: The Federal Emergency Management Response – the national government controls it but there are regulations about how that agency interacts with the states. v. Example: Coordination is a way to regulate truck driver behavior – it was easier and costs were lower at the national level1. Truck Driver Safety – when each state was individually trying to regulate all the truck drivers on the road, it was impossible. But the national government decided to make one regulating system which solved all the problems and filled the loopholes.7. Free-Riding under the AoCi. Some states didn’t contribute any resources or funding for lawsii. Valley Forge – starving and poor armed soldiers, we had to rely on France’s fundingiii. Shay’s Rebellion – the farmers didn’t have any money for their farms so they stormed the courthouse and burned the deeds to their land, so they wouldn’t go into foreclosure.iv. Inflation hurt the economy1. According to Madison, inflation is caused by fear and uncertainty of people in the market place that the U.S. government will fail and the dollar won’t be worth anything tomorrow. v. Disputes over territoryvi. Disputes over commerce and Tariffs8. Federalist 51 – the purpose of this essay is to help the readers understand how the structure of the proposed government makes liberty possible. Each branch should be, inMadison's opinion, mostly independent. To assure such independence, no one branch should have too much power in selecting members of the other two branches. If this principle were strictly followed, it would mean that the citizens should select the president, the legislators, and the judges. But the framers recognized certain practical difficulties in making every office elective. In particular, the judicial branch would suffer because the average person is not aware of the qualifications judges should possess. Judges should have great ability, but also be free of political pressures. Since federal judges are appointed for life, their thinking will not be influenced by the president who appoints them, nor the senators whose consent the president will seek.The members of each branch should not be too dependent on the members of the other two branches in the determination of their salaries. The best security against a gradual concentration of power in any one branch is to provide constitutional safeguards that


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