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ISU CHEM 1111 - Quiz 1 Study Guide

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Chem 1111 – Dr. EviliaQuiz 1 Study Guide: Lectures 1-6Chapters 1-3MEMORIZE: Avagadro's number: 6.022*1023 particles/moleCommon ions + charges: -Hint for memorization: Adding H+ ions to a compound increases the charge by +1Ion Charge NameH+1 Hydrogen ionH--1 HydrideNH4+1 AmmoniumAl3+3 Aluminum ionCd2+2 Cadmium ionCr3+3 Chromium ionCo2+2 Cobalt ionCu1+ or Cu2+1 or 2 Cuprous/CupricFe2+ or Fe3+2 or 3 Ferrous/Ferric Pb2+2 Lead ionMn2+2 Manganese ionHg22+ or Hg2+1 or 2 Mercurous/mercuricAg+1 Silver ionSr2+2 Strontium ionSn2+2 Tin ionZn2+2 Zinc ionCO32--2 CarbonateHCO3--1 BicarbonateClO3--1 ChlorateCN--1 CyanideSCN--1 ThiocyanatePO4--1 PhosphateSO42--2 SulfateNO3--1 NitrateCrO42--2 ChromateCr2O72--2 DichromateMnO4--1 PermanganateO22--2 peroxide1)Vocab: -Qualitative vs quantitative, theory vs law, matter, substance, heterogeneous (not uniform) vs homogeneous (uniform) mixtures, element, compound (chemically bound), physical vs chemical properties, Extensive (based on amount of matter) vs Intensive (based on identity of substance) properties.-Table 1.1: know which elements the following symbols correspond to:-H, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Fe, Hg, PbChem 1111 – Dr. EviliaQuiz 1 Study Guide: Lectures 1-6-Table 1.2: base units: Length(meter), Mass(kg), Volume(Liter), Time(Second), Temperature(kelvin or celsius), Amount of substance(mole)-Table 1.3: SI prefixes you must know: Mega-(M): 10^6, Kilo-(k): 10^3, Deci-(d):10^-1, Centi-(c): 10^-2, Milli-(m): 10^-3, Micro-( ): 10^-6, Nano-(n): 10^-9-KNOW: How to use scientific notation & simple algebra with exponents-Sig figs: Zeroes are NOT significant UNLESS between 2 non-zero numbers OR after the decimal point and another significant figure (ie 0.90 has 2 significant figures)-*To determine the correct number of sig figs, put a number in scientific notation*-When adding/subtracting sig figs, round to the least accurate number-When multiplying or dividing sig figs, round to the smallest # of sig figs-Accuracy vs precision-2) Atoms, Molecules, and Ions-Chemical reactions occur based on the CHEMICAL properties of a compound or element. They simply rearrange the atoms into new molecules, no matter is created or destroyed.-The types of atoms AND ratios determine the properties of a compound-Atoms consist of positive protons (mass of 1 amu), neutral neutrons (mass of 1 amu), and negative electons (negligible mass)-IONS are formed from the addition or removal of ELECTRONS-ISOTOPES are formed from the addition or removal of NEUTRONS-PROTONS define an elementNote on ions: Metals form positive CATIONS, while nonmetals typically form negative ANIONS (a notable exception would be the ammonium cation, NH4+)Periodic table: Rows are called periods, columns are called groups or families-Groups have similar properties, so it will be VERY beneficial for you to be familiar with them-Group 1A (Alkali metals): Form cations with a +1 charge-Group 2A (Alkali Earth metals): Form cations with a +2 charge-Group 17 (Halogens): This is the second group from the right, and forms -1 ANIONS-Group 18 (Noble Gases): Do NOT form ions-Ionic compounds are held together by electron charges and are formed from a cation + anion. Metals are indicative of ionic compounds.-Molecular compounds do NOT contain metals, use greek prefixes to indicate the number of each atomAcid: yields H+ cations when dissolved in waterAcid naming: “hydro-[Anion]-ic acid” (ie. Hyodroiodic acid)Oxoacid naming:-Default: “-ic” acid (ie. chloric acid)-Addition of O atom; “per...ic” acid (ie. perchloric acid)-Removal of O atom: “-ous” acid (ie. chlorous acid)-Removal of 2 O atoms: “hypo...-ous” acid (ie. hypochlorous acid)Anions of oxoacid naming:-Removal of H+ ions from acid → “-ate” anion ending (ie carbonic acid ->carbonate)-Removal of H+ ions from “-ous” acid → “-ite” anion ending-Names must indicate number of H+ ions left if only some are removedBase: yields OH- anions when dissolved in waterChem 1111 – Dr. EviliaQuiz 1 Study Guide: Lectures 1-6Base naming: “[element name] + hydroxide”Hydrate naming: “[molecule name] + [prefix]hydrate” (ie BaCl2 2H2O = barium chloride dihydrate)Simple Organic compounds: Hydrocarbons (contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms)-Number of Hydrogen atoms = number of carbon atoms*2 + 2-Methane: CH4, Ethane: C2H6, Propane:C3H8, Butane: C4H10, Pentane:C5H12, etc.3) Mass Relationships in Chemical ReactionsAtomic Mass is given in AMU, or atomic mass units: THIS IS THE NUMBER GIVEN ON THE PERIODIC TABLE (or rather, the average atomic mass is given on the periodic table)-Know how to calculate average atomic mass, it's a fairly straightforward process-1 mole (abbreviated mol) = 6.022*10^23 particlesThe number on the periodic table is given in GRAMS PER MOLE (g/mol)-Always use this number to convert to MOLES when performing calculations with a given reaction-The formula for a reaction gives you the MOLE or number of atom ratios in a reaction, NOT the mass ratios (ie 2H2+O2 → 2H2O means 2 H2 molecules react with 1 oxygen molecule to form 2 water molecules, note that the mass ratios are very different than the ratios of the numberof molecules)When balancing equations, you may only change the coefficients, not the individual formulasPercent composition: Divide the molar mass of the element by the molar mass of the compound and multiply by 100.-If given the percent composition, use 100g of the compound as a baseline, then multiply by the percentages to get grams of each atom. Divide each by their respective molar mass to get moles. You should now have the ratios between the atoms in a compound. This is the empirical formulaFind molecular formula if you are given the molar mass and empirical formula:-Divide the molar mass of the compound by the molecular mass of the empirical formula to get the ratio, then simply multiply the subscripts of each element in the compound by this ratioYou MUST know how to find limiting reagent and calculate the amount of product that is formedby a reactionExample)H2+N2 → NH3First, balance the equation:Let's start with nitrogen. There are 2 nitrogen atoms on the left side, and 1 on the right. So add a coefficient of 2 onto the ammonia molecule.H2+N2 → 2NH3Now check hydrogen. There are 2 on the left side and 6 on the right. So add a coefficient of 3 on the left side.3H2+N2 → 2NH3The equation is now balanced. Now, say we're given 23.45 grams of hydrogen gas and 87.32 grams of Nitrogen gas. We want to


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