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Pitt CHEM 0120 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Chem 0120 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Practice Problems Suggested by Fortney for Exam Practice:Chapter 13: 50, 51, 52, 55, 75, 77, 80, 81 Chapter 14: 7, 8, 36, 38, 41, 50, 52, 53, 55, 61, 75, and 77Chapter 15: 13-18, 22, 31, 34, 35, 39, 51, 52, 54, 57, 62, 67, 74, 109 Equations to understand (units involved, be able to solve for any variable, and constants to use) *do not memorize they are provided on exam*Rate Law Equation, Rate Constant, Arrhenius Collision Theory, Integrated Rate law, Half Lives, Equilibrium (Kc), Ideal Gas Law, Lecture 1 (January 6)What are the 4 ways to increase the rate of a reaction? Increase/decrease molar concentration of A andB (dependent on rate law), add a catalyst to decrease the activation energy, increase the surface area of the reactants, and increase temperature. Kinetics verses Equilibrium? Kinetics is the rate of a reaction whereas equilibrium is the extent that the reaction reaches completion. Rate = k [A] m [B] n m & n must be experimentally determined except in the case of an elementary reaction. Lecture 2 (January 8) Nonpolar verses polar covalent bond? Nonpolar has equal sharing of electrons because atoms participating in bond have equal electronegativity (tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons) whereas polar has unequal sharing of electrons typically because of extremely electronegativeoxygen. Ionic Bonds. One or more electrons are transferred form the valence shell of one atom to the valance shell of another. Strong Acids and Bases (know all 12). Strong acids are molecular compounds that ionize completely when dissolved in water to create a conducting solution (strong electrolyte) and strong bases are ionic compounds between a nonmetal monatomic cation and a polyatomic hydroxide anion that ionize completely in water (strong electrolyte). Know all polyatomic ions.Lecture 3 (January 13)Everything has dispersion forces (momentary attractive forces between molecules). Dipole- Dipole Interactions dependent on structure. Polar covalent bond with bent structure: net dipole movement andpolar covalent bond with linear structure: no net dipole movement. Hydrogen Bonding. Results from interaction between a hydrogen atom bound to a small electronegative atom, such as N, O, F, and a lone pair of electrons on another small electronegative atom. Strongest intermolecular force Lecture 4 (January 15)Collision Theory. A reaction occurs when a collision occurs at proper orientation and sufficient energy (greater than Ea). Example 13.7. Reaction orders (13. 54). Lecture 5 (January 20)Half – Lives (t ½) – time it takes for a reactant to decrease to ½ of its initial value. Integrated Rate Laws Relate concentration (or change in concentration) to time and also provide an alternative method for determining rate of reaction (Example 13.5) Elementary Reactions A single molecular event when determining m & n; we use initial rate method, integrated rate method, but not stoichiometric… unless itis an elementary reaction because then the one step is the rate determining step. Unimolecular reaction :Rate = k[A]. Bimolecular Reaction : Rate = k[A]2. Termolecular Reaction : Rate = k[A]3Lecture 6 (January 22)Rate of Forward Reaction = Rate of Reverse Reaction at equilibrium. Elementary Reaction. Exercise 13.8. Mechanism with initial fast step generates intermediate. Rate Discovery Step. Equilibrium.Lecture 7 (January 27)Chemical Equilibrium achieved when rate of forward reaction equals rate of reverse reaction; reaction is continuous but appears to stop (dynamic equilibrium- no visible changes). Homogeneous Equilibrium all reactants and products are in the same phase. Heterogeneous Equilibrium when reactants and/ or products are in different phases. Kc excludes solids and liquids solids do not have a concentration and liquids/ solvents cannot be detected for changes in concentration. Adding two reactions together to obtain a third reaction. Krev = 1/Kfwd. Exercise 14.8 .Lecture 8 (January 29)Exercise 14.5. LaChatelier’s Principle when a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by a change in pressure, temperature, or concentration the system shifts in equilibrium composition in a way that counteracts the change. Forcing production of products by removing products, change pressure by changing volume changes concentration, and changing temperature. 14.29. 14.9.Lecture 9 (February 3)Exercise 14.10. Initial concentration Change in concentration Equilibrium concentration Table. Arrhenius,Bronsted- Lowry, Lewis Acid and Base definitions. Lecture 10 (February 5)Strong acids and weak conjugate bases the stronger acid has the weaker conjugate base. Strength of acid does not equal concentration of acid. Binary acids an acid composed of H and one other atom. Binary acids strength increases across a period and their conjugate base strength decreases. Acid strength increases down a group. Oxoacids. Inductive effect – halogen helps oxygen stabilize negative charge; occurs through sigma


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