New version page

UMKC SOCIOL 101 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1-2 out of 5 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 5 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

SOCIOL 101 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1-3Lecture 1 (January 21)The Sociological Perspective- What is Sociology? It provides a connection between our world and otherso Theories to describe, explain, and predicto Refer to in groups, not as individuals- What is Sociological imagination? Created by C. Wright Millso The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.o “Walk a mile in someone else’s shoes”o Understand the difference between personal problems and societal issues- What are three questions Sociologists ask in their field?1. What is the structure of the society as a whole?2. Where does the society stand in human history?3. What varieties of people prevail?There are THREE MAIN THEORIES:- What is Structural Functionalism?o Created by Talcott Parsons and Robert Mortono Society is a stable, orderly system, and that everything in society has a function and a purpose that helps society worko Two concepts Manifest functions: intended or recognized by society Latent functions: unintended- What is the Conflict Theory?o Created by Max Weber and C. Wright Millso Groups in society are engaged in a power struggle for control over resourceso Concepts of different ways one group has advantage over another Power and prestige- What is Symbolic Interaction?o Everything in society is given meaning based on the symbolic communication between social actors.o Interaction: communication between peopleo Symbols: meaningfully represent somethingo Concepts: Social Construction of Reality: People’s perception of reality is shaped by the meaning they give to each experience. Man-made process. Labeling theory: socially constructed process in which social control agents designate certain people as deviants and they in turn come toaccept the label placed upon them and begin to act accordingly- Point of view of whoever is labeling the group Self-fulfilling Prophecy: The behavior conforms to the definition of the situation, making the original false conception come true- Point of view of those being labeledLecture 2: January 28- What is demography? o A field within Sociology that specifically examines population size, composition, and distribution- Population can change as a result of what three processes?o Fertilityo Mortalityo Migration- What is community?o A set of social relationships operating within given spatial boundaries or locationsthat provides people with a sense of identity and a feeling of belonging.- How is culture defined?o The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from generation to the next in a human group or societyo Cultural universals: common practices and beliefs shared by all societieso Subculture: a category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture. No negative connotation.o Counterculture: a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and normsand seeks alternative lifestyles. Negative connotation- Two types of cultureo Material culture: physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share. Can hold it.o Non-material culture: abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behavior. Belief system.- 4 Components that each culture shareso Symbolso Languageso Valueso Norms Prescriptive: what behavior is appropriate or acceptable Proscriptive: what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable Formal: written down and involve punishment/rewards Informal: unwritten but understood by all Mores: strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that should not be violated without serious consequences Folkways: informal norms or customs that can be violated without seriousconsequences- What is culture shock?o The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures that are radically different from their own.- What is ethnocentrism?o The assumption that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others- What is cultural relativism?o The behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards.- How does culture affect our everyday life?o Popular culture: consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal to primarily members of the middle and working classo High culture: activities patronized by the elite audiences Cultural capital theory: high culture used as device to exclude subordinateclasseso Cultural lag: William F. Ogburn- gaps between technological development and moral/legal institutionso Cultural imperialism: infusion of one nation(s) culture into other nationso Post-modern perspective: culture based on simulations of realityLecture 3: (February 4)- What is socialization?o The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in societyo Self-concept: establishing the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselveso Looking-glass self: when we base our sense of self on the perceptions of others (how others see us)o Role-taking: when a person mentally assumes the role of another person in orderto understand the world from their point of view- Agents socialization: persons, groups or institutions that teach us what we need to knowin order to participate in societyo Familieso Schoolso Peer groupso Mass mediao Anticipatory socialization: the process of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for future positions, occupations, and social relationshipso Resocialization: where we learn new and different sets of attitudes, values, and behaviorsImportant people and terms:- Auguste Comte: coined the term for sociologyo Societies have social statics and dynamicso Positivism: world best understood through scienceo Two dimensions: Methodological: apply science to both physical and social phenomena Social/political: predict results of policies/choose the best- Harriet Martineu: studies US: males/females should be treated equally - Herbert Spencer: social Darwinismo Society has interdependent parts that world together for stability- Emile Durkheim: limits of human potential socially based, not biologicallyo Societies are built on social facts: patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?