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Mizzou F_S 2195 - study guide 1

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Grapes and Wines of the World Exam #1 Study Guide Lectures 1-6Lecture 1 Introduction/Wine History- What is wine?Wine is fermented grape juice and is also a metabolic process converting sugars to acids, gases, and/or alcohol-Where was wine first originated and some of its uses?Middle East, Northern Persia, moved to EuropeUses: medicinal, stimulant/relaxant, sanitation (safer than water)-What is the French Paradox?The idea that French wines are better than wines from anywhere else in the world.Lecture 2-What are the three categories of alcoholic beverages?1. fermented: wine, cider, perry (sugar/fruits, fruit based)2. brewed/fermented: beer (ales and lagers), sake3. distilled: spirits (whiskey, rum), liqueur (Malibu, Rumplemintz), eaux de vie (fruit brandies)-What are the effects of alcohol on the body?Stimulant in low concentrations, depressant in high concentrations, seat of inhibition, decrease ofmotor skills- Alcohol is a:vaso dilatant: blood flows toward skin and makes you feel warmerdiuretic: urinate more frequently, kidneys want to remove the alcohol from the bodyheart arrhythmia and palpitations nausealibido up, performance down- 90% of alcohol ingested is absorbed - oxidation of liver: men faster than women, may be racial difference, more calories than sugar/protein, less than fat- Hangovers: lactic acid build up, dehydration, low cranial blood pressure, congeners (tannins, sulfites, histamines, butanol, menthanol, etc.)- What is acetaldehyde? Volatiles compound, in wine, in low levels can give wine a fruity aromaMore toxic to liver than alcoholNot held long enough in liver to do damage- What are the positive and negative health effects of alcoholpositive: helps heartnegative: fetal alc syndrome, liver cirosis***Extra Credit—calculating BAC(# of drinks) * (oz. per drink) * (% of alc)---------------------------------------------------(body weight lbs) * (% blood/weight)Lecture 3- How to grow the “right” graperight locationcorrect growing season and region (between Spring’s last killing frost and Fall’s first killing frost)terrain: slope and aspect, dry soil, decent slope, sun positionclimate: temperature and precipitationmacro: continental, maritimemeso: altitude, surroundings, vineyard- taxonomy: Family is vitaceae, genus is vitis, many different speciesmost known species: viniferahybrids of species: cold hardy, later budbreak in the spring, fruitful secondary buds, disease resistant, good to excellent quality- terroir: the ecosystem in a given place including climate, soil, and vines, also pruning (shearing the vines so they reach full potential)- cultivar: species of grape- climate: macro climate, growing degree days (length, nature of growing season), water availability- good harvest weather: grapes like warm and sunny days, cool nights for ripening - a lot of humidity can be bad: fungal rots, warmer vineyards- cool climate: lower sugar, higher acid, white varieties more common-warm climate: higher sugar, lower acidity, more tannins-balance: neither too much fruit or too little to leaf ratio, spacing and trellising importanttrellising: grow upward or double growth as in shrub or bushratio of height of trellis to distance between rows: about 1 footcordon=2 trunks- rows run north to south for best sun exposure-mechanization vs. by hand harvestby hand harvest: better quality but slowermachine: get materials other than grapes (twigs, leaves, insects), used in large vineyardsLecture 4 Types of WineVinifera: produce highest wine quality, stable color, higher disease susceptibility, lack cold hardiness, foxiness (intense wine flavor)Labrusca: greater cold hardiness, higher disease resistanceAestavalis: cold hardy, disease resistance, fair to good wines, high acidityRotundifolia: poor cold hardiness, bush like, excellent disease resistance, strong flavorFrench American Hybrids: for breeding effortsAmerican Hybrids: crosses of second stages with vinifera to gain high wine quality Well known Vinifera: (know location, taste, color, hybrid)RedCabernet Sauvignon Cabernet FrancMerlotMalbecPinot NoirSyrah (Shiraz)TempranilloSangioveseZinfandelWhiteChardonnaySauvignon BlancChenin BlancViognierSemillonRieslingPinot BlancPinot Gris/GrigioMuscat Blanc- blend: more than one grape in the wine- varietal: mostly one grape in a bottle of


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