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MSU PSYX 100IS - Exam 1

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Chapter 1Mental Processes and Behavior- Psychologyo Gain knowledge - or-o Way to help “crazy people “de-crazify” Came about during Great Depression No training at all at the time- Psychology in Contexto Psychology is study of brain, mind, and behavior Psych definition is up in the air If only the mind would it be under philosophy? Psych of the brain biology? Psycho only for behavior would stand alone.- Rene Decarteso “Cogito ergo sum” I think therefore I amo Perception Used deductive reasoningo Absolute Certainty Needed 100% certaintyo Evil Demon Knowledge of eyes was advanced Evil demon told eyes what they saw and ears what they heardo Dualism Body natural, mind supernaturalo Natural Philosopher Before scientist Church loved him Moved to Swedeno Died of pneumonia first year No science of the mindo No psych  Needed to get rid of dualism firstHistorical Context- Two Alternative to Dualismo Body and Mind (conscious) & unconscious mind No idea of unconscious mind Autonomic system, mind, dream? Scientific reason- Back of eye saw feet up but you never think of ito Fluid materialism (FM) 19th century no professor taught fluid materialism in universities No nonfiction book on psych or philosophy promoting FM Ermasmus Darwin, Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley- Monist- All natural- Professors sold notes to live off ofo Spent time lecturing on what is wrong with fmo Darwin and Percy used footnotes, Mary wrote Frankenstein (electricity was FM) Monster’s morals and intellect were environmental- Nature vs nurtureo Would have been killed if fm in nonfictiono Special secret police for Darwin Throughout Europe secret police sat in lectures to monitor content- Greatest Scientist of the 19th centuryo Charles Darwin No students- Painfully shy Never taught Last time he spoke in front of audience was day he announced his theory- People gave talks for himo Didn’t actually talk about what the book said Initially planned to be buried in local cemetery- Church of England insisted he was buried at Westminster Abby- Church loved him because of the people who did his talks Origin of Species attacked Scala Naturae- Scala Naturaeo Hierarchy of peopleo Against democracyo Pro monarchy Against slavery No superiority in animals- Cladogram Voyage of the Beast Darwin’s Theory was misrepresented as supporting racism and elitism- Now it is less popular though not misrepresented Monarchy and church worked together against scala and fm Legacy of Darwin’s Theory- Decarte claimed nonhuman animals were like robotso Can do anything to an animalo Dualism and fm go vice versa Historical context- Darwin and psycho Nonhumans and humans were not fundamentally different- Learn about humans by studying animalso Great emphasis on role of environment in shaping humanso Opened door for rejection of dualism in humanso Opened door for dualism in animalsPsych Book Info- Introspectiono Method used in which subjects verbally report what they went througho Wundto Structuralism Titchener Used introspection as method to uncover elements of consciousnesso Functionalism Influenced by Darwin Looked at explanations in psychological processes in terms of role in helping adapt- Paradigmo System of theoretical assumptions to make sense of experience- Perspectiveo Ways of understanding phenomenao Psychodynamics View to which psychological forces such as wishes have a direction and intensityo Psychodynamic perspective Perspective initiated by Freud that focuses on interplay of mental forces Falsifiability criterion- Ability of theory to be proven wrong to advance scienceo Behaviorist perspective Watson and Skinner Focuses on relation between observable behaviors and environmental eventso Cognition Perspective Thought and memory Psychological perspective that focuses on way people perceive, process, and retrieve information Information processing- Transformation, storage, and retrieval of environmental inputs through thought and memory Rationalist philosophers- Emphasize role of reasono Nature VS Nurture Controversy Question of degree to which inborn biological process or environment determine behavioro Evolutionary Perspective Viewpoint which argues behaviors must be understood in context of evolution Natural selection- Theory by Darwin- Natural forces select traits in organisms Adaptive traits- Term applied to traits that help organism to adjust Ethology- Studies animal behaviors in biological and evolutionary persective Sociobiology- Field explores possible evolutionary and biological bases of human social behaviors Evolutionary psychologist- Apply evolution to wide range of psychological traits Behavioral genetics- Examines genetic and environmental bases of differencesin traits Reproductive success- Capacity to survive and reproduce Inclusive fitness- Notion that natural selection favors organisms that survives and reproducesChapter 2Methods- Facto An objective statemento Sometimes based on direct observationo We can never be 100% confident in any scientific fact- Theoryo An idea or model designed to a) explain existing facts  b) make predictions about new facts that may be discovered– Important because w/out this, a theory cannot be attacked& disproved.- Hypothesiso A prediction about new factso based on a theory- Scientific Methodo Not what we think it iso Mostly dumb lucko 1944 Keeslar did survey Seven most common No 100% in science- Research Designso Experiments when a researcher manipulates the independent variable (IV) and looks for a change in the dependent variable (DV) gives the researcher control over the IV and other confounding variables Independent Variable- called the IV- manipulated by the researcher- hypothesized to affect the dependent variable Dependent Variable- measured by the researcher- hypothesized to be dependent on IV- researcher carefully monitors DV to see the effect of the it Example of an experiment:- Beast vs. sprite o Q: does drinking the Beast cause people to be more likely to hit pedestrians while driving?o The IV for this study is beverage consumedo The DV for this study is number of pedestrians killedo IV on the DV- Violent vs nonviolento Death Carnage III and Teletubies take Manhatteno Show watched to aggression levelo IV is movieo DV is aggressive behavior Extraneous variable is anything


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