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UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 220 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 220 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Anatomy of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.1. Where/what is the gray matter? White matter? What comprises gray vs. white matter? How is it different in the brain vs spinal cord?o Gray matter is the darker tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites. o White matter is whitish nerve tissue, especially of the brain and spinal cord, chiefly composed of myelinated nerve fibers and containing few or no neuronal cell bodies or dendrites.o In the spinal cord, white matter is on the outside and gray matter makes up the center, which is the opposite of the brain where white matter is on the inside andgray matter is on the outside.2. Protective coverings of the braino The meninges are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord and protect them. There are 3 layers: Dura mater (2 layers) – the outermost layer, located at the top beneath bone tissue. This material at times opens into sinus cavities located around the skull, also the home to meningeal veins. Is responsible for keeping in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arachnoid –a delicate fibrous membrane forming the middle of the three coverings of the central nervous system. Is tenuously attached to the externally adjacent dura mater and no natural space occurs at the dura-arachnoid interface. Named for the delicate, spiderweblike filaments that extend from its deep surface, through the cerebrospinal fluid of the subarachnoid space, to the pia mater. Pia matter – directly on top of brain tissue, the innermost of the three meninges covering the brain and the spinal cord. It is closely applied to both structures and carries a rich supply of blood vessels, which nourish the nervous tissue.3. How is the nervous system divided and what functions are they associated with: sympathetic vs. parasympathetic nervous systems? o The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts: the sympathetic and theparasympathetic nervous systems The sympathetic nervous system:- handles the “fight or flight” responses increases heartrate, sweat gland excretion, dilates pupils, etc. The parasympathetic nervous system: - more active when we rest and digest, what your body tends to be doing in certain situations, nerves are longer than those in sympathetic system, ganglions closer to targetso What neurotransmitters do these systems use? Sympathetic – uses Norepinephrine, and epinephrine (gives the adrenaline rush) Parasympathetic - uses Acetylcholine o How do the sympathetic vs. parasympathetic systems differ: how close are the ganglions to the target organs? Ganglions - a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system- Parasympathetic nerves are longer than those in sympathetic system, and their ganglions are closer to target organs. Nerves coming from brain and lower spinal cord- Sympathetic ganglions form ganglionic chain – tend to be really close to the spinal chord4. What is the difference between sensory vs. motor nerves? Sensory – Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous system. Have dendrites on bothends, connected by a long axon with a cell body in the middle. Motor nerves - neurons that control muscle contractions, have a cell bodyon one end, a long axon in the middle and dendrites on the other end. Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the outerparts (muscles, skin, glands) of your body.o Where are their cell bodies located in relation to the spinal cord? Sensory –The cell bodies of the sensory neurons leading to the spinal cord are located in clusters, the dorsal root ganglia next to the spinal cord.Their axon extends in both directions: a peripheral axon to receptors at the periphery and a central axon passing into the spinal cord. Motor nerves – cell body is located in the gray matter of the spinal cord and fiber (axons) project outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control muscles. o What is afferent vs. efferent? Afferent - conducting or conducted inward or toward something (for nerves, the central nervous system- The afferent neurons are the sensory neurons: they bring the stimuli from the sensors (e.g., skin, eyes, ears) to the CNS.  Efferent - conducted or conducting outward or away from something (for nerves, the central nervous system- The efferent neurons are also known as motor neurons: they bringthe responses from the brain to the muscles and the glands.5. 4 Major Lobes of the brain- what are their main functions?o 1. Occipital Lobe - Primary visual cortex with the striate cortex – the area that processes visual information also referred to as V1o 2. Parietal Lobe - Primary somatosensory cortex, Main target for touch sensations, Processing and integrating information about eye, head and body positions from information sent from muscles and jointso 3. Frontal Lobe - Primary motor cortex, important for working memory, critical thinking, organizing incoming information and processing it efficientlyo 4. Temporal Lobe - Auditory information, How we process and interpret Spoken language6. CSF/Ventricles: Where does it come from? How/where does it circulate? o CSF - Cerebrospinal fluid; helps cushion the brain and protects it. o Ventricles – four fluid filled cavities within the braino Where does it come from? Cells called the choroid plexus inside the four ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear fluido How does it circulate? Hydrostatic pressure - pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a givenpoint within the fluid, due to the force of gravityo Where does it circulate? CSF fills the ventricles, flowing from the lateral ventricles to the third and fourth ventricles. From the fourth ventricle, some of it flows into the central canal of the spinal cord, but more goes into the narrow spaces between the brain and the thin meninges, membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. In one of those narrow spaces, the subarach-noid space, the blood gradually reabsorbs the CSF.7. Tools researchers can use to study the brain: what type of info do they provide (better spatial vs temporal resolution?) Which are invasive? What are the problems/difficulties associated with using various methods?o CAT Scan computerized axial tomography - physician injects a dye into the blood and


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