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UMass Amherst KIN 470 - ATP

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Kin 470 1st Edition Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture I. Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription Outline of Current Lecture I. Anaerobic ATP ProductionA. ATP- PCr ProductionB. Glycolysisa. Energy Investment Phaseb. Energy Generation PhaseII. Aerobic ATP Productiona. Kreb Cycleb. Beta Oxidationc. Electron Transport ChainCurrent LectureWhy is lactic acid formed and what happens to it?What is the purpose of making NADH and FADH2?Anaerobic ATP ProductionATP-PCr system-immediate source of ATP: 1PCr  1 ATP-very rapid so ATP levels stay constant-stores in muscle are limited so it only provides energy for short bursts of time-used in high intensity activityPCr + ADP  ATP +Cr Glycolysis-glucose to lactate- 1 glucose  2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate or lactate-glucose= C6H12O6Two phases of glycolysis-Energy Investment Phaseglucose from blood transfer into cell burn an ATP to make polymer of glycogen1. glucose ( use ATP)  glucose 6-physphate2.glucose 6-physphate fructose 6- phosphate 3. fructose 6- phosphate(use ATP)2 3-carbon G3P moleculesTWO PARALLEL REACTIONS NOW-Payoff PhaseThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.4. glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate ( NAD+  NADH) 1,3 biphosphoglycerate`oxidation followed by phosphorylation produces 2 NADH molecules and 2 high- energy BPG molecules5. 1,3- biphosphosphoglycerate (ADP  ATP) 3- PHOSPHOGLYCERATEremoval of two phosphate groups to make ATP6. 3- PHOSPHOGLYCERATE( H2O) phosphoenolpyruvateoxidation by removal of water7. phosphoenolpyruvate (ADP  ATP) pyruvateproduces 2 ATP from ADP8. pyruvateend product of glycolysis, if oxygen is available then it continues in the mitochondria, if not thenit turns to lactic acid** remember that this path is happening twice every one glucose moleculeTotal products from glycolysis - 2 NADH-4 ATP ~ 2 net ATPProduction of Lactic Acid-if oxygen is not available then H+ and electrons from NADH are accepted by pyruvic acid to form lactic acidRecycle NADH in order to continue glycolysis-NADH to NAD+-If demands for ATP are not rapid ie lower intensity exercise NADH will get processed/recycled in the oxidative phosphorylation pathwayNAD+ + 2H+ + 2e-  NADH + H+(proton release into solution)FAD + 2H+ + 2e-  FADH2Aerobic ATP productionKreb Cycle-completes the oxidation of pyruvate-prduces 2 NADH and 1 FADH AND 1 GTP-NADH and FADH2 go to ETCElectron transport chain-NADH and FADH transfer e- to ETC-generate a proton gradient-power ATP production- H+ and e- flow to O2 to form H2OThree stages of Oxidative PhosphorylationKreb Cycle-products- 3 NADH (2.5 = 1 ATP)- 1 FADH (1.5 = 1ATP)-ATPBeta Oxidation-breakdown of triglycerides releases fatty acids-fatty acids must be converted to acetyl- CoA to be used as a fuel-acetyl- CoA enter krebs cycle and is used for energyFFA activated fatty acid  fatty acyl- CoA  beta oxidation  acetyl- coAkreb cycle  ETC ATPThe Electron Transport Chain-four complexes-Electrons flow from complex I to water-Increasing electron affinity -Reactions are exergonic i.e. release energy-Coupled and therefore drives H+ translocationChemiosmotic Hypothesis of ATP formation-electron transport chain results in pumping of H+ ion across inner mitochondrial membrane-gradient provides energy to form


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