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ECU LDSP 1000 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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LDPS 1000 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Your first examination will consist of 40 multiple-choice questions testing your factual (what?), applied (how?), and conceptual (why?) understanding of the course material. You will be expected to know the information covered in the lectures, video material, and course readings. Power Point slides of the class lectures are available on Blackboard.The following list of questions should help you with your study preparation. This list does NOT include everything you should know, nor will every question on the list be useful on the exam. Instead, it is a representative sample of information that you should know by now. The list is in no particular order.(1) Define leadership and describe what many leaders claim it entails (see Power Point slides and your textbook, pp. 2-6)Leadership- is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leadership is a process; leadership involves influence; leadership occurs in groups; and leadership involves common goals.What separates a leader from a follower: Innovation, hard work, almost always great simplifiers-who can cut through argument, debate, and doubt, to offer a solution everyone can understand. Good leaders create vision, articulate the vision, passionately own the vision, and relentlessly drive it to competition.Actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more, and become more.Leadership is a potent combination of strategy and character- if you must be without one, be without strategy. To handle yourself use your head-to handle others use your heart. Empower others. Leadership is getting someone to do do what they don’t want to do, to achieve what they want to achieve. Not necessarily the one who does the greatest things, the one that gets the people to do the greatest things. Summary of what leadership entails: Setting the right example, innovation, hard work, communication/simplicity, vision, inspiration, character, compassion, empowering others. (2) Explain how the study of leadership has changed over time (see Power Point slides and your textbook, pp. 2-4)From the 1900s-1929 Control and centralization of power. “The ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation”Leadership commonly emphasized control and centralization of power with a common theme of domination. 1927 leadership was defined “the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induced obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation. I don’t know that Calvin Cooledge was a leader in any sense but ok…In 1901 Theodore Roosevelt took office after being William McKinley’s vice president. William Howard Taft-1913Woodrow Wilson“The Man”-He served as the president of Princeton University-He maintained a policy of neutrality as the outbreak of WWI started-After Germans started sinking American ships, Wilson asked Congress to declare war in order to make “the world safe for Democracy”1930s- Trait approachTraits became the focus of defining leadership with an emergent view of leadership as influence rather than domination. And the leader’s personality traits emphasizedExample: “He or she is a born leader” Leadership resides in people; it is innate. Also identified as the interaction of an individual’s specific and personality traits with those of a group, noting that while the attitudes and activities of the many are changed by the one, they may also influence the leader. 1943-1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt in office for 12 years1940s-Group ApproachLeadership defined as the behavior of an individual while involved in directing group activities. Distinguishes between leadership by persuasion versus coercion.The group approach came into the forefront with ldsp being defined as the behavior of an individual while involved in directing group activities. Ldsp by persuasion is distinguished from “drivership” or ldsp by coercion. 1945-1953 Harry S. Truman- President who succeed Roosevelt-Led the Allies to Win WWII -Successfully guided the US Economy through Post War Economic challenges1950s-Group theory, shared goals, and effectiveness Leadership framed as what leaders do in groups (known as “continuance of group theory); leadership is a relationship that develops shared goals; and leadership is defined by the ability to influence group effectiveness.Three themes dominated leadership definitions during this decade. Continuance of group theory, which framed leadership as what leaders do in groups; Leadership as a relationship that develops shared goals, which defined leadership based on behavior of the leader, and ; Effectiveness- in which leadership is defined by the ability to influence overall group effectiveness. Dwight D Eisenhower (1953-1961)-Established NASA-Basically dealt with the Middle East and the Soviet Union (While they were still powerful) 1960s-Leadership as behaviorLeadership was described as “acts of persons which influence other persons in a shared direction”Although a tumultuous time for the world affairs, the 1960s saw harmony amongst leadership scholars. The prevailing definition of leadership in as behavior that influences people toward shared goals was underscored by Seeman (1960) who described leadership as “acts by persons which influence other persons in a shared direction). JFK and Lyndon B Johnson were presidents of this time-Relations with Soviet Union took a down turn because of some plane (that Bono plays in)1970s-Organizational behaviorLeadership became viewed as “initiating and maintaining groups or organizations to accomplish group or organizational goals.”The group focus gave way to the organizational behavior approach- where leadership became viewed as “initiating and maintaining groups or organizations to accomplish group or organizational goals” Burns’s definition 1978 however is the most important concept of leadership to emerge: “Leadership is the reciprocal process of mobilizing by persons with certain motives and values, various economic, political, and other resources, in a context of competition and conflict, in order to realize goals independently or mutually held by both leaders and followers. 1980s-Nature of leadershipLeadership was described as “getting followers to do what the leaders wants done.” Others defined it as “non-coercive influence.” A few defined leadership based on traits. And finally, some argued that


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