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CU-Boulder PSYC 1001 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 1001 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Lecture 1 (January 14)Who was the main founder of analytical biology and what was his four influences on the development of psychology?- Rene Descartes and the four influences:1) Skepticism (it needs to leave you with solid evidence)2) Humans are defined by thinking (this is a transition from religious thinking)3) Think of the body as a machine. Believed body and mind are not connected but that they work together4) Mind and body both exist and interact with one anotherWhat is the mind and body problem?- How can the two separate realms of existence- the mental and physical- interact?1) Example: Casper and how he can walk through walls but he cannot pick up certain things and he is a thinking creature? He needs to physically exist to be alive.What is modern resolution?- Term coined by Matevialis.- Believes everything is physical and that we are our brains.Lecture 2 (January 16)What are innate and derived behaviors and who coined these terms?- Descartes- Innate: Natural behaviors- Derived: Learned behaviorsWhat is empiricism?- Knowledge comes from experience through the senses over time.o No ‘innate behviors’.What is biology and who is Wilholm Wumdt?- Biology is how the parts of the body function.- Wilholm Wumdt is considered the founder of modern psychology.o He used the method of introspection.What is introspection?- Research method in which observers examine, record and describe their owninternal mental processes.o But people usually wont write down exactly how they feel.What is functionalism and what were the two influences on its development?- The view in psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function.- Two influences on its development:o Darwinismo American’s Practical Attitude How can we make money?Lecture 3 (January 21)What is behaviorism and when did it become a big subfield in psychology?- The view that psychology should be an objective science without a reference to the mind. - Big rise in the early 20’s and started experiments with animals.What are the major subfields of psychology and what does each one study?- Cognitive: The thinking aspect with the behavioral aspect.- Clinical: Deals with the mental, emotional and behavioral disorders.o Studies, accesses and treats people with psychological issues.o Practitioners usually have a Master’s degree or a PhD in clinical psychology. - Neuroscience: How the brain and the body are related to thinking, emotions and behaviors.- Evolutionary: How certain traits allow us to adapt to the environment and howwe pass on our genes.- Social-Cultural: How behavior varies across situations and cultures.- Behavioral: How differences in genetics and the environment influence individual differences.- Psychodynamic: How unconscious drives and conflicts influence thinking and behavior.o Example: Penis and womb envy.What are the two types of research in psychology?- Applied Research: Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.o This is the biggest research field in clinical psychology.- Basic Research: Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.Lecture 4 (January 23)What is psychiatry?- A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders.o Practiced by physicians (medical doctors). o Sometimes uses medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.What is psychoanalysis?- Therapeutic technique based on Freudian or other psychoanalytic perspectives.o Usually practiced by psychiatrists but not always.o Focuses on unconscious conflicts, developmental problems and repression.What are some problems with intuition and common sense?- Hind sight bias: The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one could have foreseen it.o People are over confident in what they believe.- Confirmation Bias: Tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradicting evidence.o You only seek out supporting evidence of your belief.Lecture 5 (January 26)What are variables?- Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.o Has more than one value (age, weight, sex, etc.)o A problem with this is how to measure personality?What is an operational definition?- A concept or variable is defined by the methods used to measure it.What is the first step in a scientific study?- Formulate a hypothesis o This is a testable prediction.What is a theory?- An explanation using an integral set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.o Based on previous observations.Lecture 6 (January 28)What is the second step in a scientific study?- Design StudiesWhat is a case study, what are the techniques used for case studies and what are the advantages and disadvantages of case studies?- A case study is an observational technique in which one person is studied in depth.- Techniques used:o Interviewso Direct Observationso Examine records- Advantages:o Gives a full picture of a persono Can use for unusual caseso Can use to disprove general statements- Disadvantages:o May not be representative of a populationo Can be highly subjectiveo Poor memories of the person and others What is naturalistic observation and what are the disadvantages and advantages?- Naturalistic Observation: Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.o Avoid interactions because you want to see how the subjects act naturally.o Do not want to change the subject’s natural behaviors.- Advantages:o Good for coming up with new ideaso Good for descriptive datao See if lab results apply to natural settings- Disadvantages:o Difficult to know which variables are importanto Difficult not to interveneLecture 7 (January 30)What is a survey, population and random sample? And what are the advantages and disadvantages of a survey?- Survey: A technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.- Population: All the cases in a group.- Random Sample: A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.- Advantages:o Can get a lot of information fast o Can track changes in responses over timeo Can make predictions that are valid within certain limits- Disadvantages:o Self-reports can be unreliableo Cannot validly draw cause and effect conclusionsWhat


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