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JMU GHTH 100 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GHTH 100 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 6Lecture 1 (January 15)I. Chapter 1: Taking Charge of your Health- Definition of health is, “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” –World Health Organization-Infirmity means illnessII. Health vs. Wellness- Health- overall condition of body- Wellness- optimal condition of the body- Health Goals- the 7 dimensions of wellness:1. Physical2. Emotional3. Intellectual (learning something)4. Interpersonal (social)5. Spiritual6. Environmental7. Financial (occupational)- All dimensions intertwine: -For example; being sick while taking a test. You physically don’t feel well, therefore yourintellectual performance goes down as well.- Morbidity Rate- illness, disease, and injuries that are relative incidences among a population.- Mortality Rate- the number of deaths in a population in a given time- Infectious Disease- conditions caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Can be transferred directly, or indirectly from person to person.- Chronic disease- a disease that develops and continues over a long time.Lecture 2 (January 20)III. Chapter 1: Taking Charge of your Health- Incidence- is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in apopulation within a specified period of time.- Prevalence- The proportion of a population found to have a condition.-The difference between incidence and prevalence is that prevalence is how many people have a disease right now, whereas incidence is how many people per year newly require that disease. - Primary Prevention- strategies emphasize general health promotion, risk factor reduction, and other protective measure.-Ex.) Immunization-public health education-chlorination and filtration of water supply-laws (seatbelts/ child safety seats.)- Secondary Prevention- early detection and treatment of diseases. Purpose is to cure, slow progression, or reduce impact on individuals or communities. (ex. Cancer)-Ex.) Self-breast and teste exams, mammography, colonoscopy, screening for hypertensions, diabetes, HIV, and other medical interventions. -Secondary prevention is not curing, but managing diseases. - Tertiary Prevention- seeks to reduce the impact caused by the disease on the patients function, longevity, and quality of life. -Ex.) Cardiac rehabilitation-Physical and occupational therapy-Follow- up exams (if someone had breast cancer, was treated, then continues to get check-ups to make sure everything is okay.)-Tertiary prevention is for long term effects. - Average Life Expectancy-The U.S. is number 42 on the CIAs life expectancy, at 79.56 years old. -The top five leading causes in death in the age group of 15-24 is:1. Unintentional Injury (accidents) 2. Suicide3. Homicide4. Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer) –Benign is a non-cancerous cell5. Heart Disease-The top five leading causes in death for all age groups is:1. Heart Disease2. Malignant Neoplasms3. Chronic Low Respiratory4. Cerebrovascular5. Unintentional Injury - Key Contributors to death among Americans (in order from most to least number of deaths) :-Tobacco-Obesity-Alcohol-Microbial agents-Toxic agents-Motor vehicles-Firearms-STDs-Illicit drug use- Factors Influencing Health Behavior Choices (Social Determinants)o Personal- Genetics, age, gender, and educationo Environmental--Interpersonal- co-workers, family and peers-Community-Social- Physical environment, education, transportation, access to health care, work conditions, urban designs, and SES.-Public Policy- national, state, and local laws, Healthy People 2020, FDA, USAA, EDA, and CDCo Public Health- Focuses on health of populations of people rather than individuals.o Community Health- Aims to improve the health of those in a defined community (government or private)o Disease Prevention- The process of providing tools needed to protect their healthand it’s determinantso Health Promotions- The process of enabling people to increase control over their health and it’s determinants- Health Issues for Diverse Populations: -Sex and gender-Ethnicity-Income and education-Disability-Geographic location (natural disaster and war zones) -Sexual orientations- Healthy People 2020 goals:-Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death-Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups-Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all-Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life- Factors that influence Wellness:-Health habits-Heredity/family history-Environment- Access to health care-Taking personal responsibility for your wellness- Reaching Wellness Through Lifestyle Management:-Getting serious about your health-Examine your current health habits-Choose a target behavior-Learn about your target behavior-Get helpLecture 3 (January 22)I. Chapter 2: Stress- What is stress? Stress refers to two different things: -Situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions-Reactions themselves- Stressor- The situation- Stress Response- the reactions-The stressors we experience are taken into our brain through various senses. Could be sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste. Ex.) Smelling a cologne an old boyfriend wore-loud sounds lead to increased heart rate-touch can be comforting like a hug, or make you angry like if you get shoved, or if you touch something hot, you’ll pull away quickly and your heart rate will increase.- Spicy food can make you tear up or sweat.- Physical Responses to StressorsThere are two different systems in the body that are responsible for physical responses:-Nervous system and Endocrine system- They act in similar ways: they have rapid chemical reactions affecting almost every part of your body, and are primed to act quickly and appropriately.II. Actions of the Nervous System- Parasympathetic Division- Relaxed- Sympathetic Division- arousal, neurotransmitters- Norepinephrine (used by the sympathetic nerves) Actions of the Endocrine System- Glands, tissues, and cells that help control bodily funtions- Hormones- Helps prepare the body to respond to stressTwo Systems together:- Chemical messages and actions of sympathetic nerves cause the release of key hormones- Hormones trigger physiological changes:-Heart rate accelerates-Perspiration increases-Brain releases endorphins (endorphins increase happiness, and gives you a sense of euphoria)-


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