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UA SOC 101 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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SOC 101 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 6Lecture 1 (January 15)What is Sociology? - It is the systematic study of human society. Understand the use of the sociological perspective. - It is sociology’s special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people. Be able to define and apply the concept of empiricism. - Information we can verify with our senses. Lecture 2 (January 20) What is a theory?- It is a statement of how and why specific facts are related. Understand the three major theoretical paradigms in sociology.- Structural-functionalism- a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose arts work together to promote solidarity and stability - Social- conflict Theory- the struggle between segments of society over valued resources - Symbolic interactionism- A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of the individuals Understand the following terms: - Manifest functions- The recognized and intended consequences of any social patterns - Latent functions- The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social patterns - Anomie- Durkheim’s term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance toindividuals - Mechanical solidarity- Durkheim’s term for social bonds, based in common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies - Organic solidarity- Durkheim’s term for social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies - Capitalist (bourgeoisie)- People who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits - Proletarians- People who sell their labor for wages - Class conflict – conflict between entire classes over the distribution- Class consciousness- Marx’s term for workers’ recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself - False Consciousness- Marx’s term for explanation of social problems as the short-comings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society- Alienation- The experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness Lecture 3 (January 22) Know the following terms and how they relate to the research process.-Hypothesis- A statement of a process relationship between two variables -Variables- A concept whose values change from case to case-Hawthorne effect- A change in a subjects behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied -Spuriousness- an apparent but false relationship between two (or more) variables that iscaused by some other variable -Population- the people who are the focus of research -Sample- a part of a population represents the whole -Induction- reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory -Deduction- reasoning that transforms general theory into specific hypothesis suitable fortestingLecture 4 (January 27)What is culture?- The way of thinking, the way of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life Differentiate between Folkways and Mores norms. - “Folkways”- Norms for routine or casual interactions- “Mores”- Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance Know the following terms:- Material culture- The physical things created by members of a society - Non-material culture- the ideas created by members of a society - Culture shock- personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life - High culture- cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite - Popular culture- Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population- Subcultures- Cultural patterns that set apart some segments of a society’s population- Counter cultures- Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society - Multiculturalism- a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the U.S. and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions - Culture Lag- the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system. - Cultural relativism- the practice of judging a culture based on its own standardLecture 5 (January 29) What is socialization?- The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture Name three primary theories of socialization:- Psychoanalytical theory (Freud), social learning theory (Piaget and Kohlberg), symbolic interactionism theory (Mead and Cooley)Lecture 6 (February 3 ) What are the three primary group types? - Primary groups- a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships- Secondary groups- a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity - Reference groups- a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisionsUnderstand the relationship between groups. - In-group- a social group towards which a member feels a sense of respect and loyalty- Out-group- a social group towards which a person feels a sense of competition or oppositionWhat is a status set?-All the statuses a person holds at a given time A master set?-A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire lifeWhat is a role set? -A number of roles attached to a single status How about a role strain?- Tension among the roles connected to a single status Role conflict? - Conflict among the roles connected to two or more


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