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UVM NSCI 110 - Synaptic Transmission

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NSCI 110 1st Edition Lecture 11Outline of Last Lecture I. Current and voltage clamps allow you to measure changes in membrane potential or current flow, respectivelyII. Self-propagation is a key property of neurons a. Once the action potential is initiated, it is able to move down the axon in an all-or-none fashionIII. Axon hillocks have the highest concentration of voltage-gated sodium channelsa. Conduction normally begins here and travels toward the terminal endb. Orthodromic vs. antidromic conductionIV. Saltatory conduction allows action potentials to travel rapidly down an axonV. Electrical properties at the synapsea. No electrical thresholdb. Graded (summation)c. Decremental responseOutline of Current Lecture I. Temporal and spatial summation may lead to either hyperpolarization or depolarization of a neuronII. There are several crucial differences between an action potential and synaptic potentialIII. Synapses can be classified according to where on a neuron the release of neurotransmitters occursIV. Synaptic transmissiona. Docking and primingb. Action potential reaches axon terminali. Gated calcium channels openc. Transmitter is released and travels to post-synaptic membraneCurrent LectureI. Graded potentials reflect the magnitude of stimulationII. Temporal summation occurs when two potentials occur close to the same timea. Provides a greater depolarization/hyperpolarization than either of the two individuallyb. Spatial summation is a similar mechanismIII. Comparison of action potential vs. synaptic potentiala. Action potentialThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. Voltage threshold ii. All or noneiii. Self propagatingb. Synaptic potentiali. No thresholdii. Gradediii. DecrementalIV. Synapse: the basicsa. Pre/post-synaptic membranesi. Axon terminal holds vesicles, storage granules, microtubules, mitochondriab. Many types of synapsesi. Dendrodendriticii. Axodendriticiii. Axoextracellulariv. Axosomaticv. Axosomaticvi. Axosynapticvii. Axoaxonicviii. Axosecretoryc. Type I synapses are excitatory and type II are inhibitory V. Overview of synaptic transmissiona. Transmitter is synthesized and stored in vesicles and/or endosomesb. Docking and priming (active zone)i. Active zone is where primary site of vesicles docking near pre-synaptic membrane occursii. Once vesicles are in this position (docking) they are ready to release the transmitters once an action potential reaches the axon terminalc. Action potential invades terminali. Voltage-gated calcium channels become activated1. Causes molecular tethers to contract and bring vesicles into contact with pre-synaptic membraneii. Exocytosis causes vesicles to merge with the pre-synaptic membrane at the active zone and release the transmitteriii. Endocytosis will allow the membrane to pinch off extra membrane formed by the fusion of the vesicles and halts the release of transmitters1. Pinches off gammas d. Transmitter binds to receptor on post-synaptic membranei. Opens or closes ion channel1. Sodium influx when channel opens and contributes to


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