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U of A PHIL 200 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PHIL 2003C 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Lecture 1 (January 14th)Introduction to the ClassLecture 2 (January 16th)Argument: A set of statements where one or more support some other statementWhat is a premise? A premise is a statement that provides support for the conclusion of an argument. There are normally two premises before a conclusion. What is the difference between an inductive and deductive argument? A deductive argument is where the arguer claims it is IMPOSSIBLE for the conclusion to be false given the truth of the premises. An inductive argument is where the arguer claims it is IMPROBABLE for the conclusion to be false given the truth of the premises. An inductive argument leaves the possibility for the conclusion to be wrong/false. What is a valid argument? A valid argument is a deductive argument where it is impossible for the conclusion to be false if all of the premises are true.Lecture 3 (January 21st) What is an invalid argument? An invalid argument is a deductive argument where it is possible for the conclusion to be false even if the premises are true (the reasoning behind the conclusionis not good enough to support the conclusion to be true.) What is a strong argument compared to a weak argument? A strong argument is an inductive argument where it is improbable that the conclusion is false if the premises are true (your reasoning is good.) A weak argument is an inductive argument where the conclusion is probably false even if the premises are true (your reasoning is bad.) What is a sound argument compared to a cogent argument? A sound argument is a deductive that is a.) valid and b.) has all true premises (has reasoning and a true conclusion.) A cogent argument is an argument that is a.) strong and b.) has all true premises. Lecture 4 (January 26th) What is Anselm’s Ontological Argument? Anselm’s Ontological Argument is an argument attempting to prove that God is real. The form used in the argument is “reductio.” Reductios work if you want to try to show something is true by assuming the opposite of what you believe first, then show how the opposite of what you believe leads to a contradictory consequence.Anselm begins with God by definition being the greatest conceivable thing. Then he states God exists in one’s understanding. But if God existed in reality it would be better than a God that merely exists in understanding. Expressing next his opposite belief: Suppose that god doesn’t exist in reality, but only in understanding. Then we could conceive a being greater than god. But you clearly can’t conceive a being greater than the greatest conceivable being (god). Therefore, god exists in reality as well as understanding. What are some criticisms of the Ontological Argument? Gaunilo’s criticism is that the argument “proves too much” and that many other things can be perfect besides God. Blackburn’s Criticism is the comparison of real and imaginarythings is hard to follow/believe. Lecture 5 (January 28th) What is Hume’s Dialogue? Hume’s Dialogue is the comparison between machines and the universe. P1: From like effects we infer like causes P2: The universe is like a machine P3: A machine is an effect of intelligent design C1/P4: So the universe has the same cause C2: So God exists What are the criticisms of Hume’s Argument? There is a lack of similarity between machines and the universe.Lecture 6 (February 2nd)What is Cleanthes response to criticisms of Hume’s Argument? The voice in the sky response Cleanthes makes is describing how as humans we attribute everything (such as a voice) to something intelligent (like a person.) His second response is the vegetating library which states that some books are like animals that propagate themselves like animals do and even though books are less complex it is easier to imagine this of books than a propogation of animals. For after opening any book the author must have been intelligent and if that is true then animals must be intelligent too. What is complexity found in the argument?Example?1. car x has yellow paint and leather seats2. car y has yellow paint, leather seats, and transmission problems3. your car (x) probably has transmission problems too.{this does not increase the likelihood that your car has transmission problems because paint and leather seats are not relevant to transmission problems}How does this example relate to Hume’s Argument?1. the universe is ordered, organized, and complex to a minute level2. machine x is ordered, organized, complex to a minute level, AND was caused by an intelligent designer3. so the universe must have been caused by an intelligent designer{There are so many other possible things that could have created the universe. It is not the only good reason the universe was created}Lecture 7 (February 4th)What is the structure of The Problem of Evil by Mackie? The beliefs of Mackie are: 1. God is wholly good2. God is omnipotent3. Evil ExistsWhat is Mackie trying to prove? Mackie is trying to prove that belief in a certain type of God is irrational- that one cannot consistently believe in this type of God. It is a problem of consistency. Belief in (a kind of) God is supposed to be inconsistent. What does Mackie define as “good” and “omnipotent?” Mackie defines good: opposed to evil in such a way that it stops evil if it can. He defines omnipotent: there are no limits to what such a being can do. Problems with his argument? You can define good and omnipotent as anything different. Mackie’s Point? He doesn’t claim that his definitions are the only possible definitions, Mackie just thinks that you have to reject one of the three statements in his argument or the


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