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Lecture 6Current LectureChapter 6: Youth SportHistorical Development of Youth SportFrom stickball to Little League, established 1939Mostly games child-organized until 50 years agoIncrease in girls’ participation since Title IX, 1972Offered more opportunitiesFamily and society changes affecting popularityWorking mothers1940sFear of child predatorsSafe haven for inner city kidsSpecialized trainingSponsors of Youth SportCommunity or parks programsCommunity organizationsNonprofit sport organizationsLittle league, Dixie youth, etc.Corporate sponsors, local and nationalDiscussion: Who should play for youth sport?Current Status of Youth SportIn 2005, 59% of U.S. children ages 10 to 17 played at least one organized sport.Team sport participation peaks at age 11.Ex) basketball, soccer, baseballMore than 70% of U.S. kids drop out of sport before high school.70% of the 59% who actually playedReasons for Dropping OutEmphasis on winningStress placed on high performance, early specialization in one sportExpenseIncreased overuse injury rateAthletes who specialize in a sport use the same movements everyday at practicesTrend toward alternative sportsEx) extreme sportsLack of trained coachesEarly starting age leads to greater burnoutGirls’ ParticipationGirls tend to enter sport later than boys.Girls drop out sooner and in greater numbers.Girls more likely to take part in wide array of sports; boys stick to more traditional.In rural and urban areas, girls participate far less than boys.Females may have more responsibilities around the houseExplosion of Extreme or Action SportsIncreased by 600% since 1990X Games now mainstreamExtreme sports clearly not just a fad (they’re here to stay for a while)See table 6.3 on page 104 for trends in extreme sport participation.In-line skating top of the listEffects of Trends on Youth SportDecreased physical activityRising obesity ratesMore than 5 hours a day of screen timeScreen time: TV, video games, cell phones, computersAltered sport preferenceBasketball and soccer increasing while baseball and cycling decreasingIndividual sports remaining steady in participationOrganizers of Youth SportAthlete-organized sport: Pickup games run by those playing; participation has significantly declined over the past 20 yearsAdult-organized sport: Organized sport and leagues run by parents, coaches, and organizations; participation has continued to increaseKey Point: Decreases in physical activity in the United States are primarily the result of decreases in pickup games.In an organized practice there is more standing around—waiting to take turns for drillsAthlete-Organized SportLots of action for all playersFlexible rulesPlaying and spending time with friendsFreedom from adult interference or criticismResults soon forgottenDiscussion: What are some results of the beneficial aspects of athlete-organized sport?Key Point: In athlete-organized sport, kids learn how to work within a group, make decisions, and get along with peers.Adult-Organized SportFocus is on skill development, proper positioning.Strict rules and strategies reinforce conformity.Adults choose competition level, arbitrate rule infractions, determine who plays and where.Key Points:In the past 20 years, adult-organized sport increased as youth-organized sport decreased.A lack of knowledge in safety, healthy competition, and emotional needs of kids can do real harm in adult-organized sport. Can haveIf a coach is not properly trained for a youth sportWhen parental involvement in youth sport is balanced and positive, the athletes can gain more from the sport.Why Kids Play SportsFor fun!Learn and improve skills.Stay in shape and exercise.Do something they are good at.Enjoy excitement of competition.Experience challenge of competition.Hang out with friends.Discussion: what are some of the main reasons children give for dropping out of sport?Why Kids Burn outIt’s not fun!High anxiety over outcomePerformance anxietyLow self-esteemParental or coach pressureSpecialization, overtrainingLong practicesToo many games without recoveryOveremphasis on winningReforms of Youth SportBill of Rights for Young AthletesNational Council of Youth SportsNational Standards for Youth SportsEducational programs for players, officials, coaches, and parentsSportsmanship, decreased pressureDiscussion: Do you have suggestions?SPTE 110 1st Edition Lecture 6Current LectureChapter 6: Youth Sport Historical Development of Youth Sport- From stickball to Little League, established 1939- Mostly games child-organized until 50 years ago- Increase in girls’ participation since Title IX, 1972o Offered more opportunities - Family and society changes affecting popularityo Working mothers 1940s o Fear of child predatorso Safe haven for inner city kidso Specialized trainingSponsors of Youth Sport• Community or parks programs• Community organizations• Nonprofit sport organizations• Little league, Dixie youth, etc. • Corporate sponsors, local and nationalDiscussion: Who should play for youth sport? These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Current Status of Youth Sport- In 2005, 59% of U.S. children ages 10 to 17 played at least one organized sport.- Team sport participation peaks at age 11.o Ex) basketball, soccer, baseball- More than 70% of U.S. kids drop out of sport before high school.o 70% of the 59% who actually playedReasons for Dropping Out• Emphasis on winning• Stress placed on high performance, early specialization in one sport• Expense• Increased overuse injury rate• Athletes who specialize in a sport use the same movements everyday at practices • Trend toward alternative sports • Ex) extreme sports• Lack of trained coaches• Early starting age leads to greater burnoutGirls’ Participation• Girls tend to enter sport later than boys.• Girls drop out sooner and in greater numbers.• Girls more likely to take part in wide array of sports; boys stick to more traditional.• In rural and urban areas, girls participate far less than boys.• Females may have more responsibilities around the house Explosion of Extreme or Action Sports• Increased by 600% since 1990• X Games now mainstream• Extreme sports clearly not just a fad (they’re here to stay for a while)• See table 6.3 on page 104 for trends in extreme sport participation.• In-line skating top of the listEffects of Trends on


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