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Southern Miss GLY 101 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GLY 131 11th EditionExam # 1 Study Guide chapters 1,3,4,5: If any information is not available in the notes,please refer to the book in the listed chapters.Chapter 1Introduction to Geology-Know the following definitions and understand the concepts:geology, physical geology, historical geology, catastrophism, uniformitarian-ism, hypothesis, thesis, scientific method -Earth’s sphere: hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere- Evolution of Earth: how the solar system forms-Understand the different theories and the scientist behind the theories.-Know the scientific method and the steps of the scientific methods.-The rock cycle-Earth’s mantle: Upper mantle: lithosphere, asthenosphere, transition zone; the lower mantle and the core.-Igneous rock, sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock-Know the contributions of James Hutton, James Ussher.-Contrast lithosphere and asthenosphere-Distinguish between the outer core and inner core. Chapter 3 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks-Know the following definitions and understand the concepts:mineral, rock,atoms, valence electrons,atomic number, element,octet rule, chemical bond, ionic bonds, ions, covalent bond, hybrid bonds, tenacity, hardness, cleavage, polymerization,silicates and non-silicates-List 3 types of tenacity1.2.3.-What is the difference between cleavage and fracture?-How do rocks differ from minerals?-What are the characteristics of minerals-Steno’s Law or the Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles--What is the difference between light and dark silicates other than color?Chapter 4Know the following definitions and understand the concepts:lava, melt, crystallization, texture, diorite, rhyolite, basalt porphyry, crystal settling, magmatic differentiation, assimilation, magma mixing, Bowen’s re-action series, partial melting, tabular, intrusions, dikes, sills, discordant, concordant- What is the process of crystallization-What are the types of igneous textures?-Name and give characteristics of igneous rocks-How are granite and rhyolite different and how are they similar?-What are the steps to the Bowen’s Reaction Series? know the sequence in which minerals crystallize from minerals.-Compare assimilation and magma mixing-What occurs during partial melting?-Compare primitive and secondary magmas -What does the term country rock mean?-Compare batholiths, stocks and laccoliths Chapter 5Know the following definitions and understand the concepts:magma, lava, viscosity, eruption columns, fissure, conduit, vent, volcanic cone, crater, parasitic cones, fumaroles, pyroclastic flows, calderas, volcanicnecks, pipe, mantle plume -Know the different types of eruptions-List the three factors of magma that influence viscosity-List different types of magmas -Know the different types of lava flows-What materials compose composite volcanoes?-What are some volcanic hazards?-What is a lahar?-What are the three types of


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