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UNCG BIO 105 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIO 105-02 Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 12Introductory Material Humans are dependent on nature in many ways. All of human’s resources come from the Earth. - There are about 7 billion people living on the planet and approximately 300 million live in the United States. - We do not know exactly how many species are on Earth, but are approx. 10 million and only 2 million (1%) of those have been scientifically registered with Latinized names. “What is Nature Worth?”- There is a high value on nature. Humans rely on the resources produced by the earth to survive. (soil, water, oxygen)- Ecosystem services are the flow of materials, energy and information from the biosphere that support human existence. E.g. atmosphere and climate, biomass fuels, lumber, crops…) - There is no way to even approx. what is being lost. In 1997, scientists put a dollar amount on all the ecosystem services provided to humanity free of charge, they estimated the contribution is to be $33 trillion or more each year. - Case of the Blue Whale (Colin W. Clark)o The Blue Whale is the largest species ever. The Japanese in the 1970’s were eager to continue hunting without worry towards their extinction. Clark asked what practice would yield the whalers and humanity the most money, kill the rest off or cease the hunting, let the species recover and harvest them sustainably forever. Researchers found we would gain by killing them all off quickly. - GMO (genetically modified organism)o Pros: modified so they could survive longer, could be injected with nutrience and vitamins, disease resistance, and produce higher yields. o Cons: “Frankenfoods”, still don’t know a lot of about them, and they’re not natural. - Modern Medicine: drawn heavily from wild species (40%)How do we relate to nature? State parks, domesticated animals, and species with known use. (Recreation, food, lumber, research, medicine)Anthropocentrism: (John Locke) The mindset that humans are the center of the universe. We are the main focus. We are conservative (conserving for our own use).Ecocentrism: (centered on wellbeing of ecosystem) Humans are part of a greater whole. It’s intrinsic because it has value for simply existingEnvironmentalism: a way of thinking and a movement of political activism based on a common conviction that our natural environment should be protected. It takes many forms from local to national tointernational. The motivation of environmentalist may be health-related, economic, social, aesthetic ethics, or for science. Ecology: The scientific study of the interrelations of organisms and their environment. They are scientists who study demography and genetic of populations, physiological and behavior adaptions of species to their environment, interacting among species, distribution and dynamics of communities. Their focus is on plants, animals, and microorganisms in all ecosystems**The activities of environmentalist are often based on the finding of ecologists. They have a common goal of increasing our insight about natural systems.Definitions to know:Biodiversity: Measure of the variety of life.Anthropocentric: human centeredEcocentic: centered on well-being of ecosystem Extirpated: loss or removal of a species from one or more specific area, eradication.Sustain ability: development or use of resourced in such a way that future generations will inherit a quality environment.;Precautionary principle: When an activity raises threat or harm to human health or the environment. Precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationship are not fully established scientifically. Domestic: cultivated by humans for generations. They are species living under the care of humans. Characteristics advance/enhance by selective breeding over a period of many generations. Attitudes towards nature & ecological changes in North America“It is through this mysterious power that we too have our being, and we therefore yield to our neighbors, even to our animal neighbors, the same right as ourselves to inhabit this vast land.” -Sitting Bull, Lakota Sioux holy manWhat are the roots of conservation thinking? Reduce, recycle, reuse, and rethink.Natural world has intrinsic and intangible worth along w utilitarian view. - Romantic – Transcendental: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau (1800) defined the idea that Nature has a meaning, beyond economic profits. Nature is a temple where the Man can share and communicate with God. John Muir defends a preservationist’s ethic; the beauty of Nature stimulates the religious feeling and supports spiritual experiments. He sees in biological communities where groups of species evolving together and depending on each other. - Utilitarian (resource conservation): Gifford Pinchot (beg of 20th century) “The greatest food for the greatest number for the longest time.” He believed in the complementarity of conservation and developments. Nature is a set of things defined by their utility or their harmful character. It was the first approach to sustainable development.- Land Ethic (evolutionary –ecological): Aldo Leopold, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. Post-European Contact Tribal Era (begins with first human arrival in NA) -The Paleo-Indians were the first to arrive (20,000-35,000 years ago)Post-European Contact (Pioneer Era) & fossil fuel based Technologic Era (recent)Keystone species: A species that hold everything together. The beaver makes ecosystem w dams builds environment and if the dam were to be removed then all the other species depending on that ecosystem will die with it. It had a value because it exists. Dams block fish passages, destroys spawning habitat, increase temperature of water, alter habitat, slows water flow, alters food webs. There are about 40,000 dams, and many minor ones. Manifest Destiny –Expansion of the growth of human development across the western civilization.We are aware of the actions and how it is affecting the environment. Global warming is a huge change to the atmosphere we live in. We are aware of what consequences but we still go along with our lives “daydreaming” and ignoring them. -There is only 5% of virgin first that remains in the United States today.Influential ThinkersEuropeans setting the stage for attitudes in recent times are: Rene Descartes (early 17th century) French- He believed nature


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