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IUPUI BIOL 107 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 107 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 6Lecture 1 Behavior Ecology:  What we are born with, what we learn What an animal does and how it does it Interaction of animal with its environment Innate (genetic) component Behavior may be modified based upon experiences (learned behavior) Behavior may follow a specific pattern Behavior is related to maturation:  Animals/organisms must be mature in order to perform a pattern of behavior (physiologically ready) Motor Programs- coordinated sequences of muscle actionsCost-Benefit Analysis: Used to determine if a behavior is adaptive  Benefits contribute to direct fitness If benefits outweigh costs, behavior is adaptive Behavior Responses: Kinetic- increased random movement Taxis- direction movement Reflex- part of body response to stimulus without involving higher nerve centerGenetics of Behavior Involvement of genes HybridsFixed Action Pattern: Activity need not be previously seen  Releaser (sign stimulus) Egg Rolling Ticks Dog Burying Bones (without sign stimulus) AggressionBehavior Modification:  Habituation- no harmful, irrelevant stimulus  Imprinting- recognize behavior and follows it Association- Pavlov’s Dogs Imitation Problem SolvingBiological Rhythms:  Advantages Circadian- approximate length of a day  Lunar- the cycle of the moon  Cir-annual- a yearly cycle Time of Daily Activity- Diurnal- active during day- Nocturnal- active during night- Crepuscular- active during dawn/duskBiological Clocks: Internal timing mechanisms that regulate biological rhythms  External clues not necessary as a control, but help set the clock timing  Master clock in mammals located in hypothalamus Migration and Navigation: Migration1. Moving from one location to another2. Distance not a factor 3. Long range: Water or Air 4. Short Range: Land 5. Environmental changes (weather) major reason 6. Support of feeding and breeding7. Avoidance of predators8. Costs time, energy, greater risk of predation  Navigation 1. Does not require migration 2. Directional movement using orientation aids a. Visual (maps)b. Celestial (stars)c. Lunar (moon)d. Solar (sun)e. Magnetic North f. Olfactoryg. Other Environmental FactorsSocial Interaction: Animal Societies are characterized by communication, cooperation and division of labor, and tendency to live close together Communication Methods1. Visual2. Auditory 3. Olfaction4. Tactile5. Electrical Courtship and Mating- Ensure male is member of the same speciesPermit female to access the quality of the maleLecture 2  Species: a group of reproducing individuals  Population: a group of individuals (species) Community: a group of populations Population Demographics: Density: number per unit area  Dispersion: 1. Distribution over area2. Clumped (aggregated)3. Uniform4. RandomPopulation Growth and Size:  General factors affecting population size1. Birthrate2. Mortality3. Immigration4. Emigration 5. Growth Rate: R=(B-D)+(I-E) J-Shaped Growth Curve: Population still growing S-Shaped Growth Curve: Can grow until certain point, plateau Density Dependent Factors: Limit Population Growth1. Determined directly by population size2. Work to limit/enhance growth3. Percentage of population is affected, not just select individuals Density Independent Factors 1. Not determined by population size2. Number per unit area not important3. Most often abiotic factors4. Randomly affects individualsSurvivorship Curves: Type 1- Mortality greatest in old age Type 2- Mortality spread evenly Type 3- Mortality greatest among young Lecture 3 Niches Ecological: How an animal interacts in a habitat (biotic or abiotic) Fundamental: Resources used by a species in the absence of any competition or other biotic factors Realized: Where the animal ultimately fits into the environment in the presence of competition and biotic factorsSpecies Interactions Symbiotic Relationships (Symbiosis)1. Mutualism- both benefit2. Commensalism- one benefits and the other not affected 3. Parasitism- one benefits, one harmed Competition: both harmed Competitive Exclusion: 1. Two species cannot occupy the same niche2. One species ultimately excluded due to competition for limited resources  Reduction in Competition (Resource Partitioning)1. Evolution of differences in resource use induces competition between similar species2. Risk of predation also involved in foraging behavior3. If a predator is present, the species may adjust Predation:1. Predator eats prey2. Results in coevolution3. Methods includea. Pursuit and rundownb. Ambush and lying and waitingc. Attraction: lures, means of getting attention4. Cannibalism Survival Generalist: more likely to survive, eat more than one thing  Specialist: eat one thing Character Displacement- One animal has advantage over another due to a characteristicPredator-Prey Interactions (Coevolution) Predator- Evolve better methods of hunting and prey detection- Evolve protective coloration Prey- Changes in coloration and shapeDefensive Strategies Plants Animals Physical Protection  Chemical Protection  Coloration Camouflage  Mimicry Species-Species Interaction (Parasitism)  Extracellular Parasite Intracellular Parasite Brood Parasitism Community  Keystone Species- Necessary to community- Not usually present in the largest numbers- Large impact on community  Dominant Species- Greatest in number- Large biomass- Attain status by competitive exclusion - Determine what happens in the community Native Species - Normally naturally found in that area Exotic Species- Foreign species introduced into that area Indicator Species - Tells something about environment (good or bad)Succession Primary Succession - Initial establishment of species in a previously uninhabited area- The environment changes over time- Soil has never been present- Groups of species get established as the pioneer community Secondary Succession- Occurs after primary- Soil is present and other species take advantage of the changes  Climax Community - End of the line- Mature and stable community environment- A change in community structure (species) over timeLecture 4Organizational Hierarchy Organisms -> Populations -> Communities -> Ecosystems -> EcosphereEcosystems Require energy fixation (producers)1. Plants


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