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UA POL 202 - Why Does War Happen

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POL 202 1st Edition Lecture 10Current Lecture I. War is Puzzlinga. WWIi. More than 15 million livesb. Wars among states in the 20th century led to 40 million deaths directlyc. By 2007—the US had spent $4.3 trillion fighting ten wars in its historyd. Afghanistan and Iraq could end up costing up to $3 trillionII. The Mexican-American Wara. War broke out in 1846 when the US offered to buy California, new Mexico and territory from Mexico b. Both sides would have been better off if Mexico had accepted the initial offer III. Core of the Analysisa. War occurs when the bargaining parties fail to reach an agreementb. Bargaining can fail when:i. There is no incomplete informationii. Commitment to terms of deal is questionableiii. Disputed good is hard to dividec. Promoting peaceful conflict resolution requires efforts to:i. Increase costs of conflictii. Promote transparency and communicationiii. Bring in third parties to enforce commitmentiv. Find creative ways of sharing seemingly indivisible goodsIV. What is the Purpose of War?a. War: an event involving organized use of military force by at least two parties that satisfies some minimum threshold of severityb. War is not: i. Spontaneous, disorganized violenceThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. Mass killings against a nonviolent groupiii. Case of brief or minor clashesV. What Do States Fight Over?a. Interstate war: the main parties to the conflict are statesb. Civil war: when actors are within the statec. All wars are fought over things of valuei. Purpose is not to fight—but to obtaind. Territory is often a “good” that may:i. Contribute to the wealth of state through industrial or agricultural resourcesii. Have military or strategic valueiii. Be valuable for ethnic, cultural or historical reasonse. A conflict can arise when a state enacts a policy that benefits itself but harms theinterests of anotherf. War may be a mechanism for compelling policy changeg. Conflicts over regime type or the composition of another’s governmenth. Conflicts may spring from concerns about relative poweri. First noted by Thucydides in 5th century BCii. War between Sparta and Athens inevitable due to rising power of AthensVI. Bargaining and Wara. In a domestic political system, disputes that could lead to violence are instead solved with institutionsb. However, the international system lacks reliable legal, judicial, and electoral institutionsi. Usually leads to bargainingc. Bargaining under threat of war is known as crisis bargaining or coercive diplomacyi. “Satisfy my demands or


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