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UT BIO 325 - Introduction to Genetics

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BIO 325 1st Edition Lecture 1Outline of Current Lecture I. IntroductionII. GeneticsCurrent LectureI. Genetics- the study of inheritancea. In other words, how traits are passed from one generation to the nextb. Genetics is a relatively young discipline/branch of scienceII. First question of Genetics: How are traits inherited?a. Theories were: discrete units, physical units, etc. Resemblance was the major component of determining offspring; became a problem when offspring did not resemble parents. Why?III. How is information stored?a. Encoded if DNAb. DNA- Linear polymer composed of 4 subunits (Phosphate, sugar, nucleotide pair);double-strandedc. DNA has coding and non-coding regionsd. Size does not matter: Size of DNA content (C-value paradox) and number of genes (G-value paradox) are not correlated with developmental complexity. (An onion has 6x the base pairs as a human)(Mice and humans both carry between 20,000-30,000 protein-coding genes)Chromosomes- Individual DNA moleculesGenome- entire collection of chromosomes for an organismCentral Dogma of biological information flowDNARNAProteinIV. Since all living things except some viruses use DNA for storing biological information, it suggests a common ancestora. Conserved gene function: same gene for certain function. Ex: Eye developmentThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.V. Relationship between genotype and phenotypea. Genotype: DNA sequencesb. Phenotype: How something looks; Arises from the gene products i.e. determinedby which genes are expressed where, when, and to what extent.VI. Exome- portion of the genome that encodes exonsa. In other words, the protein-coding part of the geneb. Only 1% of entire genomec. Contains most disease gene mutationsVII. Mutagenesis- used to determine gene functiona. Breaking the gene to see the effectsVIII. Social Issues and Geneticsa. GMO (genetically-modified organisms in food)b. Use of genetic informationc. Permanently altering genes in humans for researchd. Genetic profiles; Should they be available to employers, insurance companies,


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