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Clemson PSYC 3830 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 3830 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Lecture 1 (January 6th)What Defines a Mental Disorder and What Does Not?Define the DSM and its diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder.The DSM 5 stands for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual. It classifies a mental disorder as the following:1. A syndrome  group, repetition, or pattern of problems 2. A clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotions, or behavior3. A dysfunction in the underlying psychological, biological, or developmental processes of mental functioning4. Usually associated with significant distress or disability in social, occupational, or other areasThe DSM points out that a mental disorder is NOT an expected, culturally approved response to a stressor or a socially deviant behavior. Lecture 2 (January 8th) What is the Consilience Model? What is the NIMH? How does the NIMH and the DSM 5 deal with the Consilience Model?The Consilience Model is based on the idea that everything can be studied individually at different levels. Ex: You can study people on a biological bases (chemicals, molecules, atoms), the individual level (self report), on a cultural level, etc. Mental health practitioners are divided up based on the continuum of consilienceEx: psychiatrists work on the individual level, MDs work on the cellular level, social workers work on the cultural level, etc. The NIMH is the National Institute of Mental Health; it provides funding and shapes mental health policy. The NIMH works to understand the underlying, fundamental cause of mental disorders. Therefore, they don’t use the Consilience Model instead of the DSM 5. The NIMH is only interested in the smaller end of the model (cells, neurons).They also use the Positive Valence System, Negative Valence System, Cognitive System, Systems for Social Processes, and problems with arousal and regulatory systems to evaluate how people respond to stressors and rewards, where they place attention, and how they interacted with others.The DSM 5 is interested in small and large scale parts of the consilience model. They claim that disorders are formed on small end (biologically) and drive what we observe on the larger end (relationships, etc). The DSM 5 also emphasizes the person’s culture and how it may affect what they experience and experience their disorder. What is Malingering?Malingering is faking having a problem on purpose, usually for a clear external reward. It is not amental disorder.Lecture 3 (January 13th)The Original DSM and its differences with the DSM 5.The original DSM was publish in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association. It takes a psychoanalytic approach  believes that all mental disorders are caused by a problem in the subconscious. The DSM and the DSM 5 have very different diagnostic criteria for phobias. In the orginial DSM, it claims a phobic reaction is due to displaced anxiety about some event. The DSM 5 doesn’t support this displacement theory and recognizes that there is real fear and anxiety behind the phobia. What Are Different Types of Phobic Situations?1. Animals (usually fear of anxiety toward one that is harmless)2. Natural Environment3. Blood Injection Injury4. Situations that are man made5. Others (vomiting, choking) Specific PhobiasA specific phobia is a type of anxiety disorder that is diagnosed using the clinical assessment of life data, observational data, test data, and self report data that is all compared to the DSM 5. This disorder results in immediate, out of proportion fear and anxiety toward a specific object or situation, causing distress and impairment, lasting at least 6 months.Treatment options include exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring. Lecture 4 (January 15th)Trauma and Stress Related DisordersThere are three types of trauma and stress related disorders. The first is adjustment disorder, the second is reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder, and thethird is acute stress disorder and PTSD.Adjustment Disorder occurs when there is an identifiable stressor, distress is out of proportion, there is significant impairment, and does not represent normal grieving. The symptoms must develop within 3 months of exposure to the stressor, and once the stressor is gone, the symptoms can’t last more than 6 months. Adjustment Disorder can also be accompanied by a depressed mood, anxiety, anxiety plus depressed mood, disturbance of conduct, and disturbance of conduct and emotions. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder are both diagnosed in children that have experienced extreme insufficient care such as neglect or having caregivers change repeatedly so no attachment is formed. These disorders must start before the child is 5, but older than 6 months. Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder  withdrawn attitude, inhibited emotion, unwillingness to seek comfort, limited positive emotions, irritability, etc. Symptoms of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder  becoming too attached to people (even if they are strangers), being overly familiar with age inappropriate behavior, and doesn’t check in with caregiver, and will go off with strangers. Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD are caused by exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation. In both disorders, the person has either experienced the event themselves, have witnessed it first hand, have had it happen to a loved one, or have faced repeated exposure (such as being a first responder).The symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder  begin three days to 1 month after the trauma, must have 9 symptoms from the following categories: negative mood, intrusion symptoms, avoidancesymptoms, and arousal symptoms.The symptoms of PTSD  can begin more than 1 month after trauma, must have symptoms from each of the following categories: intrusion, negative mood, avoidance, and arousal.Lecture 5 (January 20th)Anxiety DisordersSpecific Phobia is out of proportion fear and anxiety toward a specific object or situation lasting more than 6 months. Different phobic situations include animals, natural environment (storms, heights, water), blood injection injury, man made situations (planes, elevators), and others (choking, vomiting).Social Anxiety Disorder is out of proportion fear or anxiety about one or more social situations in which the person is exposed to possible scrutiny. The person fears that they will act in a way that will be negatively evaluated.


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