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UNM SOC 101 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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SOC 101Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 2 - 6Lecture 2 (January 15th)Sociology – The Study of Society- Examines the interpersonal, historical, cultural, organization, and global environments that individuals inhabit Sociological Imagination - Written by C. Wright Mills- It is the ability to see the larger picture- Explains what our world has come to bePersonalistic & Individualistic Interpretations- Individualistic interpretations – from a personal perspective with an assumption of internal generation of experience- Personalistic interpretations – looks at larger external forces and influences that create thecontext for human experience Outliers – “Roseto”Roseto is the story of Italian immigrants that moved from Roseto Valforte, Italy to the United States, looking for a better life and jobs. They first set out to New York but then settled in a city near Bangor, Pennsylvania. As more and more immigrants near the same area came, they chose to name their little city Roseto, after their hometown. Roseto became so much of it’s own little world that it became a very strong and powerful social structure. Studies came to show that thepeople of Roseto were all so caring and loving towards one another that they only died of old age and nothing else. Lecture 3 (January 20th) Scientific Method & Critical Thinking- Scientific Method – includes testing and measurements of observable phenomena - Science is a project that is never finished- Science is not a faith-based system of achieving knowledge Features of Science vs. Common Sense- Self-fulfilling prophesy – if we hear and believe something, we automatically think it is true- Incorrigible proposition – when we heart something we don’t like, even though it is the truth, we refuse to believe it- Confirmation Bias – we ignore information that challenges our assumptions and beliefsFeatures of Social Science - Social science must rely on probability. Our measures of social phenomenon can only point to likelihoods of certain outcomes - It is likely that you will experience the same or similar lifestyle as your parentsNon-rational Thinking Processes - Not following good reasoning o Ex. Activity: Smoking, skydivingo Ex. Real World: If you are diagnosed with a serious disease, what do you do? Non-rational people would simply wear lucky socks instead of go to the doctor.Opinion vs. Critical Thinking- Everyone has an opinion, but using scientific reasoning forces us to question our opinions and beliefs, they must be tested through empirical observations and measuresPhilosophical Criticism - When you look behind the face claims at the dynamics and motivations The Hidden Brain – “The Telescope Effect”This was a story about a well-known cop who committed suicide fifteen years after he retired. Being a cop, you are put under a lot of stress and anxiety which could have triggered this man tosnap but no one was very sure why he would because he had a good career, was well known, and had a perfect family. Statistics show that that there are more suicide deaths than homicidesdue to people owning their own guns. Most people think it is for their own protection but what they don’t realize is that they are just putting themselves and their families in more danger. The book explains how nearly 400,000 people every year attempt suicide in the US and how nine times more kids are killed in an accidental shooting and eleven times more commit suicide with guns that their parents have at home. Lecture 4 (January 27th)Social Structure - The way relationships are organized and the social places this organization creates Levels of Social Organization - Macrolevel – the larger forces of structure (global, national, regional)- Midlevel – large, and usually impersonal organizational (job sectors)- Microlevel – personal, often intimate relations (small groups)Given Structure & Changing Structure - Through our interactions we reproduce and create social structures- Anthony Gidden’s Structuration Theory – while humans take actions and make choices, they do so in an environment given by culture, resources, etc. Rules of Social Organization- Set of rights, obligations, and behaviors associated with specific statuses- Role strain – when the role overwhelms and demands too much- Role conflict – when roles conflict or contradict (being a working parent, or workingstudent)Distinctions of Social Organization- Any position acknowledged by the social group and named (mother, teacher, son,president)- Ascribed status – given at birth or involuntarily acquired (sex, race, physical attributes)- Achieved status – earned or voluntarily acquired (star athlete, doctor)- Status symbol – anything that advertises a position (uniform, crown) Groups on Different Levels of Organization - Collections of people with whom we share some purpose, interest, or goal- Primary group – family, long-term, and intimate- Secondary group – school, work, club- In-groups and out-groups – inclusion vs. exclusion- Dyads – groups of 2, intimate but strained - Triads – when a 3rd person is added to the group of 2, mediate, divide, replace – dynamicchanges Institutions - Institutions relatively stable sets of roles, statuses, and groups that provide the foundation for particular social activityo Ex. Family, education, religion, politics, etc. Outliers – “The Mathew Effect”The Mathew Effect is the way people become successful through opportunity, not because theyearned it. In this story, they explain the reason for the success of hockey players. This allhappens because of what month their birthday’s fall in. Most kids who play hockey haveJanuary, February and March birthday’s because they are close in age and acquire the sameskills. Studies in this story show that kids who want to play hockey but their birthday’s fall afterthese months are most likely going to get cut automatically. They also show that although if akid less skillful but taller than another, they will pick the taller kid because of his/her heightadvantage. This is partially an unfair way to treat children but by starting them out young withother kids of their same age, they are most likely to succeed at becoming great hockey players.The Hidden Brain – “The Siren’s Call”In the first part of “The Siren’s Call”, there is a lady who gets beat up by a man on a busy bridge way. As people began stopping to see what


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