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UIUC KIN 122 - Designing an Exercise Program

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KIN 122 1st Edition Lecture 5Lecture 5: Designing an Exercise ProgramObjectives (recap) 4 components of a complete exercise program FITT and Aerobic activity (FITT) Apply FITT principles in designing an aerobic exercise program FITT and Strength activity Apply FITT principles in designing a strength exercise programComplete exercise program A complete exercise program includes:Warm-up and stretchingCardiorespiratory endurance exerciseCool-down and stretchingFlexibility activitiesStrength activitiesFour principles of an exercise program Overload Specificity Individuality ReversibilityOverloadStressing or challenging system beyond its normal limitsExample: Heavier weights; Sprint workouts, sustaining increased CAUTION à Balance between overloading to allow adaptation and overloading to overtrainExercise doesn't make you fit!It is the rest…that followsOverload Training StimulusAdequate recoveryAppropriate training increaseà INCREASED PERFORMANCE SpecificityAdaptations to training are greatest in activities that are similar to those used in trainingFitness gains are specific to the type of exerciseExample- Swimming vs. weight training In weight training, gains are specific to muscle groupE.g., Bicep curls vs. push-ups IndividualityProgram should be tailored and evaluated based on the individualExamples:Athletes vs. general populationOld vs. youngNew to exercise vs. experienced exerciser ReversibilityAny adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or don’t train often enough you will lose fitness“Use it or lose it” Benefits of exercise decrease within 2 weeks of exercise termination and are gone within 2-8 months if not resumedFitness goals should be Long term, life-long.The FITT PrincipleFrequency: number of sessions per weekIntensity: difficulty or stress level of each exerciseTime: duration of each exercise sessionType: activity performed during each sessionAerobic activity – how much is enough? Remember the PA guidelines?Moderate activity: 5x/week, 30 minutesVigorous activity: 3x/week, 25 minutesInteraction between frequency, intensity, and timeIf intensity is higher, time decreasesIf duration/intensity are higher, frequency decreasesGeneral guidelines for aerobic activity Frequency: 3-5 days per week Intensity: 55-90% of max heart rate Time: 20-60 minutes per session Type: choose an activity your client enjoys Why is choosing an activity you enjoy important? Encourage adherence Helps improve masteryMay be social in natureMaintaining an exercise change is about changing BEHAVIOR.Behavior change is psychological.Measures of intensity – heart rate Heart rate(take pulse to determine HR)Max HR= (220-age)Moderate: 50-70% of Max HRVigorous: 70-85% of Max HRMeasuring intensity – perceived exertion Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Range from 6-20 Range of sensations must correspond to the scale Ex: Number 6 should be = at rest & 20 should be = at max level of exertion Why does scale start at 6? The general heart rate at rest is 60 beats per minutes Note: Alternate scales exist (ex: 1-10, 1-15) METs (metabolic equivalents)Estimated amount of oxygen used by body during PA1 MET= energy (oxygen) used by body while sitting quietly Harder you work, higher the MET valueModerate PA: 3-6 METsVigorous PA: > 6 METs Talk Test:Light: Able to sing while exercisingModerate: Able to carry on a conversation comfortablyVigorous: Winded or too out of breath to carry on a conversation Progression Slowly building up endurance Progress by increasing: Intensity (e.g., walking to running)Time (e.g., adding a few minutes to each session each week)Frequency (e.g., adding more days each week)Prevents injury How else does progression help with an exercise program?Increases enjoymentIncreases adherenceAllows mastery – sense of achievementTypes of aerobic activity Continuous trainingSingle bout, low-moderate intensity, without restDiscontinuous training Several bouts, intermittent, low-high intensity, with rest periods HIT- High Intensity


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