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TAMU PSYC 311 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 311 1st EditionStudy Guide Exam 1 From Lecture 1 - What percentage of psychological animal studies use rats? o 60%- Different reasons to study animal behavioro Knowledge of predators, curiosity, economic benefits, mariculture, conservation, balance, models of man - Proximal vs. ultimal considerations in ethical considerations o How vs. why - Theory of Evolution by Natural Selectiono Malthus, Darwin, Wallace, Romanes, MorganFrom Lecture 2- Lorenz, Tinergen, von Frisch o Imprinting, sand wasps/gull eggs, animal architecture - Advantages vs. Disadvantages of Ethological Approach o Advantages: based on evolution, studied under natural conditions, descriptive, o Disadvantages: difficult to control variables, sampling, do not know previous history of the animals- Advantages vs. Disadvantages of Laboratory Researcho Advantages: experimentation (independent and dependent variables), high degree of control possible o Disadvantages: repertoire of animal never assessed, limited generalization to the real world, may create behavior, can impose own sensory characteristics- Functionalismo Carr and Watson – “instinct psychology” ; prewired instincts can occur in response to specific stimuli - Behaviorism o Watson and Skinner – elements of behavior are not prewired circuits, learning is ultimate basis for behavior, favored experimental method, no consideration for physiology, ignores evolutions, genetics, instincts, and sensory motor capabilities - Other approaches to study animal behavioro Behavioral Ecology, Crook and Eisenberg – balance of nature, interactions of a species with the environment and other species o Sociobiology, Hamilton and Wilson – Evolution of Human Behavior Looks at altruistic behavior, aggression, territoriality, etc. Perpetuation of genesFrom Lecture 3 - Behavior Genetics – nature vs. nurtureo Interact to determine phenotypical appearance and behavior (epigenesis) - Hirsch and Boudreau – phototaxis in fruit flies o Selective breeding  separation by environmental factors (light and dark)- Calvin Hall – emotionality in ratso Highly emotional rats urinated/defecated more than less emotional rats; measure of activity level- Tryon – “intelligence” in ratso Created “maze bright” and “maze dull” rats due to interbreeding - Selective breeding – by nature, by man, cross breeding, backbreeding (Stamm)- Strain comparisons – comparisons of various strains created earlier by natural or artificialselection o Artificial selection – waltzing mice, border collies and sheep, - Genotype vs. phenotype o Relative Gene Fitness – probability that a particular genotype will be present in the offspring of the species – if that genotype is the basis for a successful phenotype, then it will survive, reproduce and perpetuate From Lecture 4 - Dogs Decoded DVDFrom Lecture 5 - Sources of Genetic Diversityo Mutations – result in heritable changes in genetic material; most are deleteriouso Recombination – shuffling deck of DNA cardso Gene Flow – population of the same species processing genetic variation moves in and breeds with original species - Forces Preserving Genetic Diversityo Frequency Dependent Selection  Predation – predators concentrate on most abundant phenotype  Reproduction – rare phenotypes most likely to be selected as a mate by all others within distribution o Negative Assortive Mating – extremes of distribution attract o Gene Flow - Environmental Influences - Selection, Adaptation and Speciation o Natural selection – change in frequency of genotypes  Stabilizing, directional, disruptiveo Ecological niche – environment available for exploitation by species o Adaptive radiation o Speciation – major changes that result in new/separate/different species Sympatric – niche/behavior differences prevent interbreeding (still in samegeographical location) Allopatric – environmental changes result in geographically separate habitats - Evolutionary Stable Strategies o Successful solutions repeated across species o Optimality theory – “too much of a good thing”o Cost/benefit ratios From Lecture 6 - Homologous similarities – similarities in structure/behavior due to heredity o Linnaeus and taxonomical differentiation - Homoplastic similarities – due to factors other than heredity o Parallelism – similar structure/behavior characteristics that developed independently after genetic isolation occurred between related animalso Convergence – similar structure/behavioral characteristics acquired independentlyfrom two different ancestors (ESS)o Analogy – similar functional characteristics from two different hereditary lines o Mimicry – similarities with independent heredity; one adopts characteristics of another  Batesian – one species mimics the characteristics of a poisonous/distasteful or dangerous species  Mullerian – two distasteful, poisonous species mimic one another  Mertensian – very poisonous species mimic not so poisonous species  Mimicry of environmental features – lure, camouflage, reproductive


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