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UMass Amherst KIN 470 - Bioenergetics

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Kin 470 1st Edition Lecture 1Outline of Last Lecture I. Description of the ClassOutline of Current Lecture II. How to Understand GraphsIII. HomeostasisA. Dynamic ConstancyB. OscillationC. Steady StateIV. Maintenance of HomeostasisA. Control SystemsV. Failure of HomeostasisCurrent LectureChapter 2- Control of the Internal EnvironmentQuestion: Is homeostasis maintained during exercise?GraphsDependent variable- variable that changes based on another factor-changes as a function of exercise intensity in the graph, in the graph it is heart rateIndependent variable- variable that does not depend on another factor-in the graph it is exercise intensity*as exercise intensity (independent variable) increases the heart rate (dependent variable) will changeTitle- the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable-in the graph the relationship between heart rate and exercise intensityHomeostasisHomeostasis- internal environment remains relatively constant even through the external environment is changing-if it remained steady then death occurs- BAD-average arterial pressure due to homeostasis is 93 mmHgThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Homeostasis oscillates around a set point due to the biological control systemBiological control system- series of interconnected components that work to maintain a physical or chemical parameter at a near constant valueExamples- blood pressure, pH, CO2, ATP in a cellComponents of biological control system- receptor/ Sensor- detects change in the internal environment-integrating or control center- assesses input and triggers a response-effector- corrects disturbances to internal environmentReal life example- Regulation of blood pressure, NEGATIVE FEEDBACK1.Stimulus- the heart causes increasing blood pressure in blood vessels2. Receptor- baroreceptors in carotid artery relay information to brain in blood pressure has increased3. Integrator- brain signals heart to contract more slowly and less force4. Effector- Blood pressure decreasesNegative feedback- reverses the initial response in homeostaticPositive feedback- the enhancement or amplification of an effect by its own influence on theprocess that gives rise to it.Example- giving birthSteady State- balance between demands place don body and the physiological response to those demandsExample- The leaky bucketPicture 1: shows a cup that has the same small flow filling the cup as leaving the cupInput= outputWater level is constantDemonstrates homeostasis Picture 2: shows a cup that has a heavier flow of water leaving the cup then entering the cupInput is less than outputThe water level will dropOutput changesPicture 3: shows a cup that has equally heavy water flows entering and leaving the cupInput = outputWater level is constantThe input now matches the outputDemonstrates steady stateSteady State: Rest vs. Exercise-Graph body core temp vs. exercise time-once the body reaches a certain temperature it will go into a steady stateGain of a control system- sensitivity of a system to change-gain= ratio of output to input-gain influences degree to which the control system can maintain homeostasis* system with a large gain is more capable of maintaining homeostasisexample= CV system – muscle blood flow can increase 100 fold in order to match O2 delivery to demandTHE BODY MAKES CONTINUOUS ADJUSTMENTS TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASISExample- regulation of blood glucose1. eat food2. blood glucose rises when you eat, STIMULUS3. pancreas acts as the receptor- senses if the blood glucose is high or lowIntegrator- decides how much insulin to releaseEffector- releases insulin4. Insulin is released by the pancreas5. cellular uptake of glucose6. blood glucose level decreases* blood glucose is tightly regulatedFAILURE- DIABETESExercise: A challenge to homeostatic controlIn order to exercise muscles - increased oxygen needs -increased CO2 and lactate production- increased heatSubmaximal exercise in a cool environment: - Maintain O2 in cell, pH-Coordinated action of the nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems can maintain steady state Failure of Biological Control System-Hot and humid -Heat stroke conditions:- unable to dissipate heat-core temperature rise- nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, rapid pulse, confusion, seizure, coma-Diabetes-high blood glucose-type 1-condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue-pancreas problem-type 2-our fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin-high blood pressure-new set point for blood pressure-strains other biological control systemexample- renal system, organs are built for lower blood pressuredestroys tissue in renal systemChapter 3 – Bioenergetics-process of energy conversion-provides energy for exerciseStructure of a typical cell-nucleus: a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material- cytoplasm: where glycolysis and P-CR takes place-mitochondria- where oxidative phosphorylation occursMetabolism= sum of all chemical reactionsCatabolic pathways  breakdown, release heatAnabolic pathways  build up, requires heatExergonic reactions release heatReactants  products + energyEndergonic reactions require energy inputReactants + Energy 


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