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SU PSY 223 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 223 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 7 (Chapters 1-5)Lecture + Chapter 1: Intro to Cognitive + Neuroscience- Cognition: higher mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, deciding, and using memory (Domain: Psychology & Behavior (mental))- Neuroscience: study of the nervous system (Domain: Biology & Chemistry (physical)Philosophical Approaches: Mind-body problem-How can the brain create our mental world?-How can a physical substance give rise to our feelings, thoughts and emotions? Dualism: Mind and brain are made up of different kinds of substance, even though they may not interact Dual-aspect theory: Two of a kind? Look it up. Reductionism-The replacements – although cognitive mind concepts are curently used by science they will be replaced by biological consumersScientific Approaches: Phrenology-Failed idea of the relationship between skull shape and cognition, differences in shapes in skull means the kind of person they are Functional Specialization-Different regions, different functions Cognitive neuropsychology-What’s normal or not?using patients with brain damage and normal brained patients to compare whats normal or not Information Processing -Describing behavior Cognitive Processes: Interactivity: Skipping steps  Top-down Processing: Later stages effecting early ones Parallel processing: Processing simultaneously Levels of Study: Narrow > BroadNeuron - Dendrite: branching structures that receive input from other neurons - Cell body ( soma ): contains nucleus, genetic material- Axon: transmits action potential, produces output to other neurons-- Myelin sheath: fatty insulation that speeds signal transferCommunication Between Neurons- Action potential: electrical signal that propagates down the axon to release neurotransmitters (chemical)- Synapse: gap between neurons (where axon meets dendrite)- Neural integration: when transmitters bind to receptors it can change the electrical polarity (charge) of the soma-- If enough depolarization occurs, an action potential is generated in thenext neuron- Input: Receive neurotransmitters from other neurons through dendrites- Calculation: add inputs from all dendrites if sufficient amount of depolarization, generate action potential- Output: Propagate electrical signal down the axon release neurotransmitters across synapse Coding information: carried through the rate and/or timing of neural spikes Lecture + Chapter 2: Basic anatomy of the brain The brain works like a city where each structure has a primary function for the most partyet they almost all serve one main role.Scientific Journal (The Journal of Neuroscience)“Coordination of Uncoupled Bimanual Movements by Strictly Timed InterhemisphericConnectivity” by Gianpiero Liuzzi, Vanessa Ho¨rniß, Maximo Zimerman, ChristianGerloff, and Friedhelm C. HummelNewspaper Article: (Forbes Magazine)“The Mind-Mirror”: Visual representation of electrical activity in real timeBrain Anatomy:Cortex:Grey Matter: Neural processing occurs here. This is where input becomes represented oris interpreted.- Made up of S oma. Cortical surface contains cell bodies.- City reference: Buildings and OfficesWhite Matter: Involved in transmitting information from one part of the brain to theother.- Subsurface or subcortical: Contains myelinated axons. Its white because its fatfrom the myelin is fat that covers axon.- City Reference: Roads and PlumbingCommon Language for Navigating the brain:Ways to Remember: Anterior is at the front, since anterior begins with the letter A andA is the first is the letter of the alphabet, then you can think of it being at the front.Posterior is at the back like post.Superior is better so its at the top dorsal like dorsal fin at the topVentral is at the bottom like a vent Inferior is bottom and ventralLeft and right hemisphereLATERAL < >MEDIAL ><Lateral means outward of the brain or out towards the edge a nd medial is stuff towards the middle.CUTS: CORONAL AXIAL (HORIZONTAL)SAGITTAL ( MEDIAL )Coronal cut down like a headband.Horizontal section: Up/ downMedial or sagittal section cut from let to right right down the middle Gyrus: raised surface (mts.) Sulcus: dips or folds (valleys* Gyri and sulci is plural or more than oneCentral sulcus: separates parietal lobe from frontal lobeBasic facts are in temporal lobe Frontal lobe – ability to control ourselves and higher level thinking The white structure is the corpus collusum:connects the right and left hemisphere works like a super highwaySubcortex: (2 +ACHO)- Basal Ganglia: regulating motor activity and starting/stopping action- involved in Parkinson’s, lack of dopamine- Limbic System:Involved in memory and emotional processing; involves these structures ACHOAmygdala: processing emotion and threat; threat detectorCingulate gyrus: detecting “conflict” and decision making esp the anterior cingulate gyrus: cupcake exampleHippocampus: binding items and events in memory EX. linking name and face or not wanting to eat tuna because it made u sick before.Olfactory bulb: processing smell (right bone the nasal cavity)- Thalamic bodies: Involved in sensory processing and regulating bodily processes2 sections:1. Thalamus (RIGHT/LEFT): sensory relay for all senses except smell- “Central Station”; light hits eyefirst goes here and thalamus send it to appropriatepart2. Hypothalamus: body regulation (homeostasis) breathing, heartbeat, sweating releases hormones affecting hunger and breathing etc (hypo means below thatlamus)Midbrain: (2)“Lizard Brain”- The midbrain is OLD in evolutionary terms. Provides a fast (unprocessed) route for sensory informatione.g., attention grabbing flash or bang- Superior Colliculi: integrate information from vision, hearing, and touch- Inferior Colliculi: specialized for auditory processingHindbrain: (3) (CPM)- Cerebellum: needed for movement coordination and motor control, Integrates motor plans with sensory information about the external world.- Pons: link between cerebrum and Cerebellum - Medulla (oblongata): connects pons and spinal cord. Crucial for regulating breathing, heart rate, etc. (like hypothalamus)Recording the Brain: Transcranial magetic stimulation (TMS) Improves symptoms of depression  Magnetic rather than electrical stimulation in brain Applied across the skull  Electrophysiological method (EEG/ERP) and


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