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UM BIOH 370 - Ovaries/Testes Continued

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BIOH 370 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture Endocrine System Cont…I. Adrenal Glands ContinuedII. Adrenal Gland Disordersa. Tumor in Zona Glomerulosa of Adrenal CortexAddison’s Disease b. Hypersecretion of Cortisol in Adrenal Glands (can occur in Pituitary Gland as well) Cushing’s Disease III. Pancreasa) Pancreatic Isletsb) Pancreatic Islets Hormonesa. Pancreatic Islets Insulin/Glucagon Feedback Systemb. Diabetes Mellitusc. Type I Diabetes:d. Type II DiabetesIV. Gonads: Ovaries/TestesOutline of Current Lecture Last Lecture on Endocrine SystemI. Ovaries/Testes Continued:a. Low Testosterone:Replacement therapy:b. ExperimentThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.c. FSH and LHII. Pineal Gland and ThymusIII. Other Endocrine Tissues and Organs, Eicosanoids, and Growth FactorsIV. The Stress ResponseV. Development of the Endocrine SystemVI. Aging and the Endocrine Systemi. Hormone ChangesCurrent LectureLast Lecture on Endocrine SystemI. Ovaries/Testes Continued:a. Low Testosterone:- -weight gain, depression, loss ofmuscle mass, sleep trouble- -Replacement therapy chart:b. Experiment/study: Gonadal Steroids and body composition, strength and sexual function in meni. Chemically castrate with goserlin acetate(inhibits endogenous testosterone and strogen)ii. Exogenously supplemented with placebo or increase doses of testosteroneiii. Had about 200 men in study between 20-50 years oldiv. Each group received different amounts of testosterone backv. Thought the decrease estrogen would increase testosterone because thought estrogen “masked” testosterone- tested itvi. Some estrogen is needed for a reduction in body fat after testosterone replacement**Results: estrogen is important in men for homeostasis and important in regulation with testosterone (opposite of what was though before)c. FSH and LH- Anterior Pituitary gland contains gonadotrophs that produce these- Used in oogenesis and ovulation(release of eggs)- Important for secondary sex organ developmentII. Pineal Gland and Thymusa. Pineal Gland: The pineal gland is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain and secretes melatonin which helps to regulate the body’s biological clock.b. Thymus: The thymus is located behind the sternum between the lungs. It produces thymosin, thymic humoral factor (THF), thymic factor (TF) and thymopoietin, all of which promote maturation of the immune system’s T cells.i. Site for T cells to mature-aid in immune systemIII. Other Endocrine Tissues and Organs, Eicosanoids, and Growth Factors- Eicosanoids: locally-acting hormones derived from the 20-carbon fatty acid arachadonic acid.- Certain hormones stimulate cell growth and division. Several newly discovered hormones called growth factors are involved in tissue development, growth and repair.IV. The Stress Responsea. Eustress is helpful, everyday stress that prepares us to meet challenges.- “I have to get to class on-time”b. Distress is any type of harmful stress that may be damaging.- Constant worryc. The fight-or-flight response (first stage of the stress response) stimulates the body’s resources to prepare for immediate activity.- Sympathetic nervous system activatedd. The resistance reaction is the second stage in the stress response and lasts longer than the fight-or-flight response.- Body starts to hold onto nutrients(storing them)V. Development of the Endocrine System *Review Table 29.1 in book- Glands from the endocrine system arise from ALL THREE PRIMARY GERM LAYERS- Pituitary gland=master regulator of the endocrine system so develops firstVI. Aging and the Endocrine System- Aging brings about changes in the levels of most hormones. Some increase while some decrease. In addition, levels of some hormones, like epinephrine and norepinephrine, remain the same.- Histologically, most endocrine glands reduce in size and contain increasingly more fibrous connective tissue with age.- Hormone Changes:- HGH by anterior pituitary decreasesà muscle atrophy- Hypothyroidism- PTH increasesàlow dietary intake of calcium/calcium absorption- Calcitriol and Calcitonin decrease with age- Pancreas releases insulin more slowly- Ovaries decrease and no longer respond to gonadotropins- Testosterone decreases in very old age for


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