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NDSU PSYC 111 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Psych 111 LadburyExam # 1 Study GuideChapter 1 Neurons- Nervous systemo Extensive network of specialized cells Carries information to and from all parts of the body Electrical and chemical messageso Neuron Basic cell, makes up nervous system Nerves are made up of neurons- Primary job is to sends and receive messageso Sent electrically - Between two neurons, a chemical message is sent Makeup of a neuron***- Dendrites: branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons.- Cell Body: aka “soma” which maintains the life of the cells (food, waste, etc.) and combines messages from dendrites.- Axon: tube-like structure that carries the neural messages to other cells- Glial cells: cells that…o provide support for neurons to grow on and aroundo deliver nutrients to neuronso clean up waste products and dead neuronso produce myelin (form of fat)- Myelin: fatty substance that coats the axons of the neuronso Acts as shieldingo Allows for faster transmission of a messageo Damage with multiple sclerosis (auto-immune systemattacks its own body) movement and perception disorder- Terminal Buttons: end of the axon, store and release neurotransmitterso Chemicals which send the messages to the next neuron in the chain - Synapse: an empty spaceo Chemical information is transmittedo Neurons never physically touch one anothero Float around until contact with a dendriteo Message passed on to the next neuron in the chain Steps to sending a message1. Neuron receives chemical message from another neurona. Chemical message can be either excitatory (send a message)or Inhibitory (stop sending messages) depends on what chemical2. Resting potential a. State of neuron when not sending a message b. Negative charge inside the neuronc. Surrounded by sodium (Na+)Action potentiald. Release of the neural impulsee. Na+ enters neurons, charge from – to +f. Change travels from cell body to terminal buttons2b. All-or-none Lawg. A neuron fires at full strength or not at all3. Positive charge arrives at terminal buttonsa. Synapse: an empty spacei. Chemical information is transmittedii. Neurons never physically touch one anotheriii. Float around until contact with a dendriteiv. Message passed on to the next neuron in the chain4. Reuptakea. Used neurotransmitters broken down, components moved back into sending neurons, and reassembling for later useNeurotransmitters- Many different neurotransmitterso Acetylcholine (Ach) Excitatory, skeletal muscle control, memory creationo Serotonin Inhibitory, mood control, sleep inducer “everything is fine” chemicalo Dopamine Excitatory, reward, sensations, approach motives “reward chemical”Chapter 2The BrainPeripheral nervous system/central nervous systemOrganization of the brain- Hindbraino Oldest portion of the braino Regulates survival functionso Aka brain stemo Contains: Medulla (keeps heart beat and breathing) Pons (dreaming/survival functions??  not for sure known) Reticular formation (waking up/kick start to consciousness) And…- Cerebellumo “little brain”o Controls fine motor skillso “muscle memory”- Midbraino Basal Ganglia Regulate mood*** Initiate actions Acts as a connection between hindbrain and forebrain o Substantia Nigra Part of the basal ganglia House dopamine and serotonin- Forebraino Newest and most complex part of the brain- Thalamuso Integrates sensory information- Hypothalamuso Regulates biological needso Sends information to glands- Hippocampuso “sea horse”o Responsible for formation of long-term memories- Limbic system o Generates emotional impulseso Amygdala  Linked to emotion Major structure within limbic system  Responsible for linking emotion to behavior (among other things)The Brain- The newer partsOrganization of the brain- Cerebrumo Largest and most complex portion of the braino Highly developed in humansLateralization- Cerebrum has 2 hemispheres- Functional crossovero Left side of brain controls right side of the bodyo Left side of the brain receives sensory information from right side of bodyo Right side of brain-left side of bodyo Specialized functions- Left hemisphereo Language production and comprehensiono Mathematics and logical reasoning- Right hemisphereo Muscle abilityo Spatial reasoningo Facial recognition- “left brained” or “right brained”o Myth for 99.99% of populationo Only true if you have had a particular surgery to control epileptic seizuresOrganization of the Cerebrum- Corpus callosumo Thick band of neurons and fiberso Connects left and right hemispheres of the braino Most active part of your brainChapter 3ConsciousnessI. The awareness of internal and external stimuli II. Dual processing a. Processing information both consciously and unconsciously III. Selective attentiona. Focusing of conscious awareness on particular stimulusIV. Inattentional Blindnessa. Failing to see visible object when attention directed elsewhere SleepI. Lots of misinformation exists about sleep and dreamsa. Required by our biologyb. Do not know specifically know why we do itc. Misinformation occurs because people are hungry for any info at alli. Unscrupulous people will make up things because people will pay for answers II. Measuring activity during sleepa. Electroencephalograph (EEG)i. Monitors electrical activity of the brain over timeii. Summarizes activity as brain wavesIII. Stages of sleepa. Awakeb. Drowsyc. Rapid eye movement (REM)d. NREM-1e. NREM-2f. NREM-3IV. How Much Sleep??a. Declines with agei. Infants  14-16 hoursii. Elderly 4-6 hoursV. What if we don’t sleep??a. Sleep deprivationi. 41 million Americans (1/6)b. 10 million are so sleep deprivedi. Cannot remember what it’s like to not be sleep deprivedc. What happens if you don’t sleep?i. Hallucinationsii. Memory lossiii. Poor eating habits (increase metabolism! Used so much energy they die)iv. Poor critical thinkingv. Depression and anxietyvi. Death after so longChapter 4I. Development during infancya. Walking13 monthsII. Cognitive development a. Four stages of cognitive developmenti. Sensorimotorii. Preoperationaliii. Concrete operationaliv. Formal operationalIII. Sensorimotor Stagea. Ages: birth-2 yearsb. Abilitiesi. Interact with the worldii. Small number of inborn reflexes1. Sucking2. Rooting (touch on cheek, baby will TURN TOWARDS that cheek)3. Grasping iii. All senses are operational1. Eyesight is poor at birth a. Little color visioni. Only bright,


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