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UM ANTY 403E - reading for week 1

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Reading for Anthropology 1/29/15Principles for Ethical ResearchTwo basic cross cultural issues1. Cultures do not have universal standards2. The need to contextualize judgments are dependent on the perspective of the cultureAll cultures recognize that some behaviors are not acceptable based on their own particular ideals, morals, or values.United Nations’ The declaration of Universal Human Rights: Provides guidelines for cross cultural research to protect humans from harmful practicesThe basic principles for ethical research:1. Respect for persons2. Maximize good for people and minimize harm3. Insure basic social justice for people participating in human researchRespect for personsDirected at protecting individual human rights over the rights of a society or governmentRespect for Persons: Containing two separate moral requirements, which is the requirement to acknowledge autonomy and the requirement to protect those with diminished autonomyThe Respect for Persons contains three primary components: Individual autonomy, FreeWill, and Self-determinationIndividual Autonomy: Encompasses the idea that each person has the right to make his or her own decisions and the obligation to accept the consequences of those decisionsFree Will: The belief that individuals are free to make decisions according to their own conscienceSelf-determination: One’s ability to determine his or her own future or actionsThese principles were edged into the Declaration of Independence and codified into the Bill of Rights by the United States ConstitutionThe Bill of Rights: The key foundational documents for establishing ethical researchPrinciples within the United States:Beneficence (Do No Harm)Requirements of Beneficence: Do more good than harms that is caused by the researchThe general rules formulated as complementary expressions of beneficent:1. Do not harm2. Maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harmsPersons who take part in potentially harmful research must give their consentJustice: Protects the people’s right to find and equitable treatment. Also requires that no group ofpeople should be exposes to the risks of the research if their group will not benefit from the researchFormulations to just ways to distribute burdens and benefits:1. To each person an equal share2. To each person according to an individual need3. To each person according to individual effort4. To each person according to societal contribution5. To each person according to merit Two U.S. laws that have direct and essential impact on the way in which ethical principles for human research are defined and understood:1. Privacy and confidentiality2. Civil rightsPrivacy Laws: Establish a right for people to protect themselves from having private and potentially harmful information about themselves disclosed to people who have no right to access said informationThe difference between privacy and confidentially:Confidentiality: Pertains to data. Making sure that others don’t have more access to information then the individual wantsPrivacy: Sense of being in control of access to their own informationQuizlet Link: http://quizlet.com/69673870/anthropology-reading-for-12915-flash-cards/Works CitedWhiteford, Linda M., and Robert T. Trotter II. Ethics for Anthropological Research and Practice. Long Grove: Waveland Pres,, 2008.


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