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Ls-Mcrb 121 1nd Edition Lecture 6Current LectureProkaryotesI. Prokaryotes come from the Greek word for prenucleusII. Prokaryote characteristicsa. One circular chromosome, not in a membraneb. No histonesc. No organellesd. Peptidoglycan cell walls for Bacteria and Pseudomurein cell walls for Archaeae. Binary fissionIII. Basic Shapesa. Bacillus: rod-shaped b. Coccus/cocci: sphericalc. Spirali. Spirillumii. Vibrio: banana shapediii. Spirocheted. Unusually shaped bacteriai. Star-shapedii. Rectangular IV. Arrangementsa. Pairs: Diplob. Clusters: Staphyloc. Chains: StreptoV. Glycocalyx characteristicsa. Outside cell wallb. Usually stickyc. Slime layer: unorganized and loosely attached to the cell walld. Capsule: neatly organized glycocalyx attached to cell walli. Extracellular polysaccharide that allows cell to attachii. Capsules prevent phagocytosise. Biofilmsi. Composed of glycocalyx called an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)VI. Motile Cellsa. Rotate flagella to run or tumbleb. Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)i. Chemotaxis: chemical stimuliii. Phototaxis: light stimuliThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.c. Flagella proteins are H antigens: help distinguish among variations within a speciesVII. Flagella characteristicsa. Outside cell wallb. Made of chains of flagellinc. Attached to a protein hookd. Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal bodyVIII. Axial Filaments (endoflagella)a. In spirochetesb. Anchored at one end of a cellc. Rotation causes cell to moveIX. Fimbriae a. Fimbriae allow attachmentX. Pilia. Usually longer than fimbriaeb. 1-2/cellc. Facilitate movementi. Gliding motilityii. Twitching motilityd. Facilitate transfer of DNA from one cell to another: conjugationXI. The Prokaryotic Cell Walla. Prevents osmotic lysisb. Made of peptidoglycan in bacteriai. Polymer of disaccharide1. N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)2. N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)ii. Gram-positive is linked by polypeptides1. Teichoic acidsa. Lipoteichoic acid: links to plasma membraneb. Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan (thick)2. May regulate movement of cations3. Polysaccharides provide antigenic variationiii. Gram-negative Bacterial Cell wall1. Outer membrane2. Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids3. Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane4. Protection from phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics5. O polysaccharide antigen6. Lipid A: endotoxin7. Porins: proteins that form channels through membraneXII. Gram Staina. Classifies bacteria into gram-positive and gram-negativeb. Discovered by Hans Christian Grami. Gram-positive1. Penicillin and detergent sensitive2. 2-ring basal body3. Disrupted by lysozymeii. Gram-Negative1. 4-ring basal body2. Endotoxin3. Tetracycline sensitivec. Gram-staining process:i. Primary stain: crystal violetii. Decolorizationiii. Counterstain: safraninXIII. Acid-Fast Stainsa. Resist decolorization with acid alcoholb. Basis consists of a waxy cell wall composed of mycolic acidsi. Prevents most water-soluble stains from crossing the cell wallii. Staining methods use a lipid soluble stain, carbolfuchsinc. Bacterial spores, pathogenic bacteriad. Acid-Fast staining processi. Primary stain: carbolfuchsinii. Decolorizing: acid-alcoholiii. Counterstain: Methylene blueXIV.Atypical Cell Wallsa. Mycoplasmasi. Lack cell wallsii. Sterols in plasma membraneb. Archaeai. Wall-less or walls of pseudomurein: lack of NAM and D-amino acidsXV. Plasma Membrane make-upa. Phospholipid bilayerb. Peripheral proteins: associate but do not penetrate the membranec. Integral proteinsd. Transmembranee. Proteinsf. Selective permeability: allows passage of some moleculesXVI. Fluid Mosaic Modela. Membrane is as viscous as olive oil, non-staticb. Proteins move to functionc. Phospholipids rotate and move laterallyXVII. Movement of Materials across Membranesa. Passive processesi. Simple diffusion: movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to low concentrationii. Facilitated diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membraneiii. Osmosis: The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water to low water concentrationiv. Osmotic pressure: The pressure needed to stop movement of water across the membraneb. Active Transporti. Requires a transporter protein and ATPii. Group translocation: requires a transporter protein and PEPXVIII. Organellesa. Cytoplasm: substance inside the plasma membraneb. Nucleoid: Bacterial chromosomec. Ribosomesi. protein synthesisii. Size 70SXIX. Inclusions** (memorize):a. Metachromatic granules (volutin) = Phosphate reservesb. Polysaccharide granules = Energy reservesc. Lipid inclusions = Energy reservesd. Sulfur granules = Energy reservese. Carboxysomes = Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for carbon dioxide fixationf. Gas vacuoles = protein-covered cylindersg. Manetosomes = iron oxide XX. Endospore Staina. Endospore: a dormant form of the bacterium that allows it to survive unfavorableand harsh environmental conditionsi. Resistant to heat, dessication, chemicals, and radiation1. Outer layer of keratin, resists stainingii. Metabolically inactiveLecture 2EukaryotesI. Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleusII. Eukaryote characteristicsa. Paired chromosome in nuclear membraneb. Histonesc. Organellesd. Polysaccharide cell wallse. Mitotic spindleIII. Flagella and Ciliaa. Microtubulesi. Central microtubulesii. Doublet microtubulesiii. Tubuliniv. 9 pairs + 2 arrayIV. Cell Wall and Glycocalyxa. Cell Walli. Plants, algae, fungiii. Carbohydratesb. Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannanc. Glycocalyxi. Carbohydrates extending from animal plasma membraneii. Bonded to proteins and lipids in membraneV. The Plasma Membranea. Phospholipid bilayerb. Peripheral proteinsc. Integral proteinsd. Transmembrane proteinse. Sterolsf. Glycocalyx carbohydratesg. Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules h. Simple diffusioni. Facilitative diffusionj. Osmosisk. Active Transportl. Endocytosisi. Phagocytosis: pseudopods extend and engulf particlesii. Pinocytosis: membrane folds inward, bringing in fluid and dissolved substancesVI. Cytoplasma. Cytoplasm membrane: substance inside plasma and outside nucleusb. Cytosol: fluid portion of cytoplasmc. Cytoskeleton: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubulesd. Cytoplasmic streaming: movement of cytoplasm


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