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UM BIOB 170N - Biology Lecture from 1-28 to 1-30

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Biology Lecture 1/28/15Classifying Life and Phylogenetics1. Kingdoms and Domains2. Taxonomy and classification- Hierarchical Classification and binomial nomenclature3. PhylogeneticsClassifying the diversity of life on earthEarliest biologists recognized two kingdoms of life: Plants and AnimalsThe Five Kingdom System: Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Protista, monera2-points: - Kingdom-level approach to classification does not completely represent “biological reality”- Kingdom level approach supplemented by “domains”3 domain system of classification is more inclusive than kingdom-level classificationThe three-domain system: Bacteria, archaea, and EukaryaCarolus Linneaus: Introduced Hierarchical classification and Binomial nomenclature in 1735Hierarchical classification: Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, DomainBinomial nomenclature: Each species is identified by two terms: genus and specific epithet, which are either italicized or underlinedPhylogenetics: The study of evolutionary history of related species or other taxonomic groupsLecture 1/28/15: Biology Lecture 1/30/151. Phylogenetics- Interpreting Phylogenetic trees2. Evaluating evolutionary relationships among organisms- Homology vs. Analogy- Branch points- Ancestral/sister/basal groups- Monophyletic – polyphyletic groups- CladesBranch point: Where lineages divergePolytomy: an unresolved pattern of divergenceSister taxa: Two taxon that share a close common ancestorBasal Taxon: A taxon whose evolutionary lineage diverged early in the history of the groupMonophyletic groups – Polyphyletic groupsClade: group of organisms that share a unique derived trait. It includes an ancestral taxon and alldescendants with the trait. Clades are essentially synonymous with monophyletic groups.Vertebral column: Defines the vertebrate cladeHair: Defines the mammal cladeParaphyletic group: Does not include all related formsClass Reptilia is a paraphyletic group comprising all amniotes other than mammals and birds.Polyphyletic group: Includes similar, but not closely related formsEvaluating evolutionary relationships among organisms morphological / anatomical structuresHomologous structures: features of organisms “molded” in different ways, reflects adaptation to different environments, but derived from same fundamental partsMammal forelimbs: Humerus, radius, ulra, carpals, phalanges.Homologous structures: Suggest evolution of diverse organisms from a commn ancestorDifferent organisms my possess analogous featuresAnalogous features: Attributes with different evolutionary origins- Analogous features (homoplasies) serve similar functions- Result of convergent evolution; not evidence of relationshipNotes- Proceeding examples compared morphological/anatomical features- Other features used when comparing evolutionary relationships1. Biochemical markesrs2. Celltype: prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic3. Cell features: flagella, organelles, division mechanismBiochemical Markers: Proteins, nucleic acids, pigments, energy storage compoundsLecture 1/30/15: Quizlet Link:


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