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NAU CCJ 215 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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CCJ 215 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Chapter 1Pixel policy- Memorial criminal justice policies- The media and criminal justice policy link is easily seen in memorial criminal justice policies, which are named for individuals, usually victims. Ex: We have Megan’s Law and Amber Alert due to massive publicity of heinous crimes and theirinnocent victims. Looping- results when events and information are repeatedly cycled and recycled through the media into the culture to reemerge in new context.Ex: a police car chase video cycles from courtroom evidence to local news footage, to infotainment programs content, to a clip inserted in a comedy movie, to sundry Internet Web sites and social media sharing platforms. This continuous looping and reformatting of content results in the blurring of facts and fiction. Multimedia web- comic books persist as part of the multimedia web, and their crime-and-justice portrayals still prosper via licensing deals that span films, video games, toys, food, cartoon, and television shows. Narrowcasting- The opposite of broadcasting. Small homogenous audiences that have special interest in a narrow type of content are targeted.On-demand- nature. With new media, the delivery of content is controlled and determined by theconsumer. RITE NOW!Interactivity- the decentralization of the creation and distribution process when combined with the fourth differentiating characteristic, interactivity, leads to powerful social affects. Infotainment- can be defined as the marketing of edited, highly formatted information about the world in entertainment media vehicles. Another way to define it- Broadcast material that is intended both to entertain and to inform.Commodification- The packaging and marketing of crime information for popular consumptionMedia trial- the media hijacking and dramatization of actual criminal cases has invigorated the media trial- the co-optation of a regional or national crime or justice event by the mediaMediated experience- the experience that an individual has when he or she experiences an event via the media a bit closer to what is like to actually personally experience that event. Three characteristics of new media- most important, new media’s unique characteristics of narrowcasting, on-demand access to content and interactivity shift the audience experience from passive consumers to active participants. Four types of media-Print media- example comic books Sound media- example radio Visual media- example FilmNew media- example InternetChapter 2Social constructionism- sees reality in a different light and views knowledge as something that is socially created by peopleEX: You are somewhat living in segregation depending on what gender, race and class you are. Race, class and gender don't really mean anything. They only have a meaning because society gives them a meaning.Where do we get our social knowledge- Personal experiences, where were you born Significant other (peers family, and friends- also called conversational reality), Other social groups and institutions (schools, unions, churches, government agencies), And the media- movies and shows Stages of social construction- Stage 1- The physical World- conditions, events, and properties Stage 2- Competing social constructions- for example, “crime is out of control” versus “society is safe” Stage 3- Media as social construction competition arena- media-adept constructionists have an advantage Stage 4- winning social construction- criminal justice policies are determined by winning constructionExperienced reality-your direct word experienceEX: being in a real car accident Symbolic reality- most of what we believe in our world. EX: characteristics of a child abuser Social constructed reality- a mix between both. What the individual believes the word to be like Claims makers- are the promoters, activists, professional experts, and spokespersons involved in forwarding specific claims about a social condition Factual claims- are statements that purport to describe the world EX: Crime is out of control Interpretative claims- are statements that focus on the meaning of events. EX: crime is out of control because the lax sentencing of criminal judges Linkage- involves the association of the subject of the social construction effort with other previously constructed issuesEX: the linkage between the lyrics from a public service announcement song strive to link to bullying to terrorism Frames- is a fully developed social construction template that allows its users to categorize, label, and deal with a wide range of world events. Narratives-instead narratives outline the recurring crime-and-justice types and situations that regularly appear in the media. EX: the naïve innocent who stumbles into victimization is one recurring crime narrativeSymbolic crimes-are well-known symbolic crimes. They are trumpeted to convince people of the existence of a pressing crime-and-justice problem and a desperately needed criminal justice policy. Ownership- is the identification of a particular social condition with a particular set of claims makers who come to dominate the social construction of that issue. Claims makers own an issue when they are sought out by the media and others for information regarding the problem and for opinions regarding the reasonableness of competing social construction and policies associated with the issue. Conversational reality- our most influential social construction engine is composed or personal experience and information received directly from people close to us our conversational reality Criminologist Theodore Sasson and crime and justice frames-5 crime and justice frames-Faulty criminal justice system Frame- the first frame holds that crime results from a lack of “law and order”. The only way to ensure public safety is to increase the severity of punishment. EX: the criminal justice system needs to “get tough” Blocked Opportunities Frame- this frame depicts crime as a consequence of inequality and discrimination, especially in unemployment, poverty and education. People commit crimes whenthey discover that legitimate means for attainting material success are blocked EX- the government must address the “root causes” of crime by creating jobs and reducing poverty.Social Breakdown Frame- This frame depicts crime as a consequence of family and community disintegration, skyrocketing rates of divorce, and out-of-wedlock births EX: citizens should


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