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WVU POLS 210 - Final Study Guide

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Final Study Guide Poli Sci 220 TRUE OR FALSE: 1. Dillon’s Rule is a way to get around Home Rule. FALSE 2. Over time we have moved from layer cake to marble cake federalism. TRUE 3. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a regional body. TRUE 4. Smaller groups have harder times overcoming the free rider problem. FALSE 5. States get more $ in federal aid if they have lobbying offices in D.C. TRUE6. West Virginia has more multimember districts than most states. TRUE 7. Governors have a harder time getting reelected than do U.S. Senators. TRUE8. Gerrymandering to favor incumbents is usually illegal. TRUE 9. Cue voting makes use of the norms of reciprocity and specialization. TRUE 10. “Goodbye to Goodtime Charlie” is about the change in style of governors. TRUEWhy we compare states: States are more similar then they are different. They are basically giant experimentswith 50 different governments. Three types of political culture: Political Culture- the way people think about politics. 1. Individualistic- Politics as a market place. Extension of a market place, what’sbest for yourself. Mainly located in the Northeast and Midwest. High in corruption. Examples: NJ, PA, NY, WV2. Moralistic- Politics to improve society. Mainly located in the New England Area. Corruption rarely happens. Issues with diversity. Example: NY 3. Traditionalistic- Politics to maintain the existing order. Participation is low, Located in the Bible Belt (Southeastern and South Central Area) Corruption islow because people already have what they need : sons and daughters of politicians. Example: WV The origins of the federal system: Origin: Articles of ConfederationProblems with Articles of Confederation: a. Lack of national unity- people didn’t have a national identity b. Lack of coordination- 13 different : states, militaries, currencies, etcOptions: a. Unitary System- central government that deals with citizens. Examples: England, France, and Israel b. Confederation- no relationship between government and citizens. Examples : Switzerland and the U.N. c. Federalism – power is shared between national government and states. The major events in the development of federalism over time: 10th amendment- 1791 part of the bill of rights, expresses principle of federalism, defines balance of power between federal and state government. Federal government only has specific powers granted by the constitution.Alien and Sedition Acts- 1798 under President John Adams, consisted of 4 laws passed by the federalists, controlled congress as America prepared for war with France Interposition and Nullification (VA&KY Resolutions)- Interposition: a state may oppose to any federal action it believes encroaches its power Nullification: U.S. state refusing to enforce a federal law on constitutional groundsVA&KY Resolutions: 1798-1799 political statements drafted where VA& KY legislatures argued the federal Alien and Sedition act were unconstitutional and theywere not authorized by congress Marbury VS Madison- 1803 most important case Supreme Court history, first case toapply “judicial review”. Dealt with administrative law, which involves the federal government. Process of appointing a high ranking official and it must be done while a president is serving, however Marbury’s time was not completed under one president, the judge was in favor of Marbury and said he was entitled to the position granted by john Adams but it was up to the new president Thomas Jefferson Louisiana Purchase- 1803 treaty signed with France in which the U.S. purchased land for $15,000,000. Mississippi River  Rocky Mountains and Canada Gulf of Mexico McCulloch VS Maryland- 1819 federal court case that dealt with the banks, McCulloch was appointed manager of the federal bank in Maryland and refused to pay the state tax. Verdict: In favor of McCulloch because of the necessary and proper clause in the constitution, led to a number of future decisions involving taxation. Civil War- 1861- 186513th amendment- 1865 abolished slavery 14th amendment- 1868 Addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of laws 15th amendment- 1870 prohibits federal and state government from denying a citizen the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude 16th amendment- 1913 gives congress the power to collect taxes on income without apportioning it among states Government and Welfare- 1920’s The different types of fiscal federalism: Fiscal Federalism- Financial relationship between the state and local governments; form of grants and quarter of its funding from federal government. - Major source of money for states and localitiesTwo ways of classifying: 1. Level of discretion:a. categorical grants- least discretion, very specific purposeb. block grants- moderate discretion, general area, most $ in these c. general revenue sharing- total state or local discretion, good and bad points, abolished in the mid 1980s. 2. Method of Allocation: a. project grants- many categorical grants but not much money , application process and class bias. b. Formula grants- virtually all block grants, some categorical and all revenue sharing before it was abolished.The importance of conditions of aid: Conditions of aid allow policy control that cannot be mandated.Importance: Fiscal Federalism is a major source of money for state and local government it accounts for 25% of their revenue. National Government gets involved to gain more power. Conditions of aid are things that must go into rule such as the drinking age in order for the state to get funding. The changes to fiscal federalism under Ronald Reagan: Took office in 1981 Goal: to get government of the states backMade 3 changes1. Categorical grants became block grants - States like that because they get to pick what the money goes too. 2. Elimination of revenue sharing 3. Reduction in over all grant money- Reduction of federal aid to both state and local gov- Largely restored in George H. Bush administration Why some states get more federal aid than others do: States receive as much federal aid as they can get. State with the most: gets 3x the amount per person that the lowest state.  Smaller states seem to get more federal aid because of their unity. Homogeneity of a state is key for it to receive aid.  Lobbying offices matter as well. Depending on if the state has a lobbying office in DC or not. Governor : If the governor has served in the U.S. congress you receive more


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