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WVU SPAN 203 - FINAL STUDY GUIDE

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FINAL STUDY GUIDE:Mandatos informales: Regular: DO DON’TAR A ESER E ASIR E ASVerb Positive (DO) Negative (DON’T)Abrir Abre Abras Dormir Duerme Duermas Leer Lee Leas Irregular: Positive Decir di Hacer haz IR vePoner pon Salir sal Tenir  ten Venir  ven Irregular : Negative Subjunctive version of each verb LOS ADVERBIOS : Simple- asi, bien, mal, mucho , nunca, poco, siempre,solo and tanto Compound- add mente to the end of a femine singular form of adjectives . Adjectives that end in “e” or and constanent just add “mente”Examples: Total totalmenteAbosluto absolutamente Triste tristemente POR Y PARAPor: Rule: to express gratitude or apologyModel: Gracias por la ayuda.(Thanks for the help.)Rule: for multiplication and divisionModel: Dos por dos son cuatro.(Two times two equals four.)Rule: for velocity, frequency and proportionModel: Voy al restaurante cinco veces por semana.(I go to the restaurant five times per week.)Rule: meaning "through," "along," "by" or "in the area of"Model: Andamos por el parque.(We walk through the park.)Rule: when talking about exchange, including salesModel: Él me dio diez dólares por el libro.(He gave me ten dollars for the book.)Rule: to mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of,"Model: No voté por nadie.(I didn't vote for anyone.)Rule: to express a length of timeModel: Yo estudié por dos horas.(I studied for two hours.)Rule: to express an undetermined, or general time, meaning "during"Model: Se puede ver las estrellas por la noche.(One can see the stars during the night.)Rule: for means of communication or transportationModel: Prefiero viajar por tren y hablar por teléfono.(I prefer to travel by train and speak by phone.)Rule: in cases of mistaken identity, or meaning "to be seen as"Model: Me tienen por loco.(They take me for crazy.)Rule: to show the reason for an errand (with ir, venir, pasar, mandar, volver, and preguntar)Model: Paso por ti a las ocho.(I'll come by for you at eight o'clock.)Rule: when followed by an infinitive, to express an action that remains to be completed, use por + infinitiveModel: La cena está por cocinar.(Dinner has yet to be cooked.)Rule: to express cause or reasonModel: El hombre murió por falta de agua.The man died for lack of water.Rule: "estar por" means to be in the mood, or inclined to do somethingModel: Estoy por tomar café.(I'm in the mood for drinking coffee.)Rule: in passive constructionsModel: El libro fue escrito por Octavio Paz.(The book was written by Octavio Paz.) Fixed Expressions:por adelantadoin advancepor ahorafor nowpor allíaround there; that waypor amor de Diosfor the love of Godpor aquíaround here; this waypor casualidadby chancepor cientopercentpor ciertocertainlypor completocompletelypor dentroinsidepor desgraciaunfortunatelypor ejemplofor examplepor esothereforepor favorpleasepor finfinallypor lo generalgenerallypor lo vistoapparentlypor medio deby means ofpor lo menosat leastpor lo tantoconsequentlypor mi parteas for mepor ningún ladonowherepor otra parteon the other handpalabra por palabraword for wordpor primera vezfor the first timepor separadoseparatelypor supuestoof coursepor suertefortunatelypor todas parteseverywherepor todos ladoson all sidespor últimofinallyPara: Rule: to indicate destinationModel: El hombre salió para Madrid.(The man left for Madrid.)Rule: to show the use or purpose of a thingModel: El vaso es para agua.(The glass is for water.)Rule: to mean "in order to" or "for the purpose of"Model: Para hacer una paella, primero dore las carnes.To make a paella, first sauté the meats.Rule: to indicate a recipientModel: Este regalo es para ti.(This gift is for you.)Rule: to express a deadline or specific timeModel: Necesito el vestido para el lunes.(I need the dress by Monday.)Rule: to express a contrast from what is expectedModel: Para un niño lee muy bien.(For a child, he reads very well.)Rule: "estar para" to express an action that will soon be completedModel: El tren está para salir.(The train is about to leave.)Imperfect :Used to describe habitual or on going actions EndingsAR ER IR Aba ia Ia Abas Ias Ia Aba ia Ia abamos Iamos iamosAbais iais Iais Aban Ian Ian Accent over i Accent over iPRETERITE: Endings: AR(accent o) ER/IR (accent i,io)e iaste isteo ioamos imosasteis isteisaron ieronPresent Perfect:Haber + present participle YO HETU HAS UD, ella ,el HA Nosotros HEMOS Ellos, ellas, Uds HAN ENDINGS AR ado


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