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UA GC 170A1 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GC 170 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 5Lecture 01 – January 20thScientific Process and the Keeling CurveJust focus on the Keeling Curve:What environmental variable is being measured? - Project to calculate levels of CO2 in the air started by Dave Keeling, in Pasadena, CAWhere are the measurements made?- Project moved around the United States to find fluctuations in CO2 levels throughoutthe day o Except in the middle of the afternoon, everywhere, there were 310 ppm’sWhy was the sampling location chosen?- The project is now situated in an observatory on top of a tall mountain in Hawaii, Mauna Loao No industrieso No nearby citieso Far from vegetationo No inversion layersWhat are the units of measurement?- Parts Per Million (ppm) What do the wiggles represent?- Fluctuations o Late summer- CO2 stored in leaves (Low Points)o Winter- Leaves have decayed, CO2 in air (High Points)Lecture 02 – January 22nd Quantify Global Change and Group activityUnderstand how to read a time-series plot.Know how to draw a mean line, and describe the trends, variance and oscillations.- Measure of an environmental variable at a given point in time o Description Mean = average of x axis values - A mean line is drawn  Trend = lack of, increasing or decreasing direction of the mean line Variance = the height of the values (amplitude) above or below the mean (How high or low the values go above/below the mean) Periodic = perfect fluctuations (Up and Down pattern)- Wave-like pattern- Quasi-periodic = almost regular fluctuations - Random = no pattern to the fluctuations- Rate of change: Change in variable/change in time o Exponential Rate of Change (The change increases instead of behaving linear)Lecture 03: January 27th Forms of energy, Electromagnetic Spectrum and radiation:Know the forms of energy: potential, kinetic, thermal and electromagnetic radiation. - Energy: what we need to complete physical actionso Ability to move, heato Measures the capability to create change or do work (move, heat)o Objects possess energyo Energy cannot be destroyed but it can change from one form to another Thermal can be transferred between objects- Potential energyo Energy of an object that could be doing something but is not- Kinetic energyo Energy of movement, the ability of an object to do work because it is in movement- Thermal or heat energyo Volume of air within moving particleso Microscopic o Result of kinetic energyUnderstand how electromagnetic radiation is transmitted through space- Energy is transmitted as waves and particleso Both the sun and earth transmit energy as electromagnetic radiation Sun- short wave Earth- long waveReview how to describe a wave (frequency, wavelength)- Lecture 2 What is the relationship between wavelength and energy transmitted?- Wavelength= distance between wave crests- Frequency= number of wave crests passing a fixed point/sec The longer the wavelength—the lower the frequency & lower energyo Intensity of radiation increases with the decrease of wavelengthHow is the electromagnetic spectrum organized?- "Energy: The Driver of Climate." Climate Science Investigations South Florida -. Web. 25 Jan. 2015.What are the wavelength bands, which are relevant for global change (UV, Visible Light, IR)?- Ultraviolet- Visible Light- InfraredWhich wavelengths are emitted by the sun and earth?- Sun- short wave- Earth- long waveWhat is the concept of flux?- Def: amount of energy (# of photons) that passes a perpendicular surface per unit area Intensity of radiation covering one areao Measured in watts/meters2 o The poles of the earth receive less radiation compared to the equatorHow does the flux (energy per unit area) depend on angle of incidence and distance to the sun? - The flux (W/m2 ) decreases because the amount of radiation is measured per unit area- The Same amount of radiation is spread over a larger area therefore there is less energy per unit areaWhat are the global change examples of the flux concept?- More radiation is absorbed per unit area at the equator (WARMER) - At the poles, radiation strikes the earth at an angle, less radiation per unit area is absorbed (COOLER)Lecture 04 and 05: January 29th, February 3rdRadiation LawsUnderstand the Inverse-Square law, and how this influences the variation of temperature on earthInverse-Square Law - If we double the distance from the source, the intensity of radiation decreases by ¼ for the same unit area- As the distance from the source increases, the intensity decreases exponentiallyUnderstand how the Inverse-Square law influences the temperature of earth relative to Venus/Mars  Venus receives much more radiation per unit area than the earth and mars o It has a thicker atmosphere with more CO2 than the earthUnderstand the graphic and explanations for each of the Radiation Laws #2-4- Planck Function Lawo The Planck function relates the intensity of radiation to the wavelength emitted by a blackbody (emits at 100% wavelengths)- Wien’s Law o A blackbody has a maximum radiation flux, that is inversely related to the temperature of the blackbody. The lower the temperature of a body, the longer peak wavelength lower energy flux  The higher the temperature of a body, the shorter the peak wavelength higher energy flux- The Stefan-Boltzman Lawo Total energy emitted proportional to the bodyWhy are these laws important for global change?  The physical laws help us predict how the earth system will respond to increasing temperaturesWhat do they help us to predict or measure? The physical laws help us predict how the earth system will respond to increasing temperaturesLecture 05: February 3rdAtmosphere structure and compositionKnow the four layers of the atmosphere- Troposphere (0-10km)o Temperature decreases with altitude Ex: Mt. Lemmono Warm at bottom cold at top o Most of the greenhouse gases are concentrated o Decreasing temperatureo Composition:  Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.9%), Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide- CO2 and H2O are greenhouse gases- Stratosphereo Ozone Layero Increasing temperature- Mesosphereo Decreasing temperature- Thermosphereo Increasing temperatureHow does temperature change within each layer?- Troposphereo Decreasing temperature- Stratosphereo Increasing temperature- Mesosphereo Decreasing temperature- Thermosphereo Increasing temperatureWhere are the greenhouse gases concentrated?- Troposphere Where is the ozone layer?- StratosphereUnderstand the


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