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UMSL PSYCH 3290 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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3290 exam 1 notes PSYCH 3290 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Developmental tasks (Biggest brain changes 0-2 & 13-18)P-Physical (Physiological regulation)I-Intellectual (Learning through 5 senses)E-Emotions (Label and manage emotions)S-Social (Building attachments)InfantsP-self soothing behaviors, reach/grab I-object permanenceE-bonding/primary attachments, primary emotions-hungry, tired, scaredS-can respond to others, dependent on others for needsToddlers (1-3)P-Stronger, bolder, top heavy, accident proneI-Imitates, cause/effect relationships, understands more than they can sayE-Recognizes sad, happy, mad, scared. Tries to regulate emotions.S-Help seeking behaviors, aggression to problem solveEarly Childhood (4-6)P-Fine motor skills developing, hand-eye coordinationI-Literal, logical, sequential. Magical thinking-power to make things happenE-Identify/label self/others emotions, empathy emergesS-Problem solving moves from aggression to negotiation, had to see others POVLate Childhood (7-12)P-Growth spurts, uneven development among peersI-Executive functions, improved language skills, shift in education complexityE-Can see others POV, can better express emotionsS-Looking glass self, teamworkAdolescence (13-18)P-Puberty, sexual development/experimentationI-Abstract thinking, metacognitionE-Mood swings, code of conduct more solid, romantic relationshipsS-Family tension, riskier behaviors, peers supremeBrofenbrenner’s-Bioecological ModelProximal processes- Developmental processes of systematic information between person and environment. Activity must be frequently occurring over time, becoming more complex involving interactions and not be unidirectional. Each task builds on another and later mastery hinges on prior learning. Systems3290 exam 1 notesIndividual-Gender, temperament, & genetics influences development, affects proximal processes.Microsystem-Immediate settings where proximal processes occur (home, school).Mesosystem-2 microsystems affecting each other (neighborhood/home, school/home).Exosystem-Microsystem that indirectly affects child (parent’s job, personal teacher stress, crime rates).Macrosystem-Large scale forces that shape quality/quantity of proximal processes (laws, culture, war).Chronosystem (Time)- Major life transitions, environmental events and historical events that occur during development & affect development.Developmental Psychopathology- Seeks to understand how normal development is derailed. Assumes:1. Unidirectional model too simple b/c people respond differently & influence environment/vice versa.2. Psychopathology & developmental disturbances are multidetermined. 3. Interactions among variables contribute to adjustment.4. Variables can act as independent mechanisms to determine path- can speed path (genetics, trauma), can slow path (awareness, mentor)5. Interactions in internal & external environments influence development-can shift courses as newtraits are developed.6. Interactions can change over time (chronosystem)-Girl tomboys are ok when young but not older.7. Transactional interactions-child’s (age, gender, etc) impact caregivers response.8. Interactions build on each other.9. More risks = higher pathology10. CTS problems when spark plugs overpower brake pads.Risk-Increases likelihood of psychopathology developing or lead to distress. Vulnerability-long lasting factor (gender, temperament)Ex: Organics-genetics, nutritionIntrapersonal-low IQ, poor esteemInterpersonal-neglect, abuseMacro-poverty, violenceTransient Challengers-Temporary issues that can increase CTS. (Job loss, illness, injury)Protective Factors-(Buffer) Decreases risk of CTS (Loving parents, religious beliefs)Transient Buffers-Temporary protectors (extra $ during hard times)Developmental compromise1. Regression2. Problem learning new development3. Decreased learning opportunities associated with not learning age related skills4. “checking out”-decreased initiativeResistance-Shielding from stress (self-efficacy, regulate)Resiliency-adapt and recover3290 exam 1 notesSecondary adversity-Problems that stem from another adversity.Mediating Mechanisms-(Protective processes) Reduces risk impact and negative chain reactions (self-esteem/efficacy, opportunities)Signs & Symptoms of CTS0-3: Hard to soothe, flip on can’t flip off, biting, bossy, regression, guilt due to omnipotence.3-5: Post traumatic repetitive play, regression, hostile misattributions (sun looking at me), hypervigilance.Phobias, attachment issues, somatic complaints, preschool refusal6-12: Intense mood swings, low attention/concentration, impulsive, hypersensitive. Absenteeism, somatic complaints, intrusive thoughts, attention seeking behaviors.13-21: More riskier/self-destructive, pseudomature behaviors, mood problems, substance abuseTrauma typesAcute-one time, temporary interruption Outcomes: PTSD = Exposure to event that involved/threatened death, serious injury, sexual violation experienced in 1+ ways (direct experience, witnessing, vicariously, repeated exposure to event details). 4 categories: (1+) Intrusive symptoms-memories, dreams, flashbacks, psych distress, physical reaction.(1+)Avoidance-Avoid memories/thoughts/feelings, external cues.(3+) Negative cognitions/mood-Cant remember, negative evaluations/emotional state, detachment.(2+) Arousal/Reactivity Alterations-Irritable, reckless, sleep problems, hypervigilant, concentration issuesPTSD w/ Dissociative Symptoms-above plus (1+) depersonalization or derealization. Complex-Simultaneous or sequential, can be same trauma repeated or different ones, chronic disruption. Domains of Trauma reactions (Always Answer Bright Bears, Clowns & Dancing Squid)Affect (Mood) Regulation-Issues identifying/expressing feelings, can’t regulate emotions.Attachment- Distrust of others, Boundary issuesBehavior-Impulsive, aggressiveBiology-Somatic complaints, AnalgesiaCognition-Problems w/ Executive functioningDissociation-Detachment, depersonalizationSelf-Concept- Low Self esteemDefining CTS3 types (PTT)1. Positive stress-Short lived event, Causes brief physiological reactionEx. Wedding planning, exercising, new job2. Tolerable Stress-More intense, still short lived. Usually can overcome, may benefit development. Ex: exams, surgery, end of relationship.3. Traumatic/Toxic Stress-Impacts how brain is formed. Intense adverse experiences across time.Ex: Bullying, child maltreatment, death.3290 exam 1 notesBrains reactions to CTS-Intense physiological responsesConfusion


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