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SIU BIOL 304 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 304 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lecture 1 (January 21)Chapter 1What is evolution?-Genetic change over time-May or may not involve o Speciationo Long periods of timeo Drastic morphological changesWhy study evolution – why is it important to me?-Evolving diseases-Evolving weeds-Evolving insects-Helps us find natural products we need such as pharmaceuticals-Helps us understand ecology, morphology, anatomy, and behavior-Helps us plan for the futureHIV- Why have treatments been ineffective?- Are humans evolving to fight HIV?- Where did it come from?- Why is it lethal?Lecture 2 (January 23) ATZ resistance- Enzymes do not bind to ATZ- Enzymes binds, but the HIV later fixesOne reason HIV prevails – reverse transcriptase is sloppy- Fights drugs- Mutations take over and drugs cannot stop them- Eventually ATZ stops working- Resistance to drugs is passed on to new virus in human body- The same thing happens to bacteria to antibiotics.HAART- Antiviral therapy- Cock tail of drugs to stop HIV at different levels of development - Evolution against all drugs is highly unlikely if taken properly Are we evolving due to HIV?- Some are more resistant from mutation of an allele - This appears in N. Europeans why?o Black plague?o Random genetic drift?Where did HIV come from?- not monophyletic group- evolved from non-human, primate host1. humans kill infected chips2. people carry virus to populated areas3. people travel around the world- clock origin 1920-1940Why is it lethal?Lecture 3 (January 26)A virus evolve with each individual host and it evolves faster than our immune system can handleWhat factors affect us from defeating HIV virus?- Evolution of the virus- Sloppy DNA replication- Resistance to drugs- Evolution of humans- Allele in Europe that resists HIV- Protein that blocks HIV replicationChapter 2Before 1700’s most biologists believed animals were unchanging Most geologists used a biblical flood to explain rock layers and fossilsArch bishop James Ussher - dated Earth October 22, 4004 B.C.Carolus Linnaeus – binomial naming system James Hutton – uniformitarianism Most geologists gave up on “young earth 4004 B.C.” and some biologists say animals evolved before 4004 B.C.Erasmus Darwin – “E Conchis Omnia” every thing from shells. Thought living things changed from simple to complexJB Lamark – species change over time, from imperfect to perfect. This change was caused by needs. Also proposed spontaneous generationCharles Darwin – - From a wealthy English family- Dropped out of college- Went on the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836)- Sorted and identified things found from tripo Made puzzling connections – Galapagos fincheso Married Emma Wedgwood (cousin)o By 1838 he realized natural selectionThomas Mathus – unchecked reproduction = exponential growth – diseases and death.Charles Lyell – “principles of geology” and “evidence of antiquity of man”Alfred Wallace – independently developed natural selection, and survival of the fittestAlfred and Darwin co-authored EvolutionDarwin later expanded with “origin of species” Lecture 4 (January 28)Post Darwin- Evolutionary biology has developed immensely since Darwin’s work- “modern synthesis” is 20th century interrogation of his work.Evidence of evolution- Change through timeo Selective breedingo Measuring change in natural populationo Vestigial structures Pseudogenes – nonfunctional In order for it to be a vestigial character, there must be an ancestor that would suggest the use/function Transitional forms- Speciation- Macroevolution- Common ancestryo Homology Different taxa have similar structures only modified Not all similarities are homologous! o Morphologyo Molecular data- Old EarthLecture 5 (January 30)(from previous class)- Old Eartho Modern estimates – 4.6 billion years agoo Oldest rock – 4.2 billion YAo Radiometric datingo Fossil recordo stratographicRadiometric - Alpha particle (protons)- Beta particles (fast electrons)- Gamma Rays (high frequency)Stratographic- Principle of super positiono Younger rocks are on top of older rocks unless disturbedo Lay horizontallyo Cross cutting relationships Intrusion is younger than sedimentary rock Faults are younger than rocks on top of them Principle of fossil succession- Fossils occur in consistent vertical order throughout the worldLecture 6 (February 2)Chapter 3Natural selection Artificial works the same as natural selectionArtificial selection Selective breeding by humans Rely on pre-existing genetic variation in natural populationHow long does it take to change?Conclusion Large morphological changes can occur in short time All natural populations contain genetic variation - potential for evolutionNatural selection Organisms more suited for environment will survive/reproduce – passing traits to next generation Or Organisms with highest “fitness” will pass genes to next generation Fitness relative reproductive success o Survival doesn’t increase fitness unless it increases productiono Only meaningful within context of relative differences.How do we measure fitness?Darwin’s theory of natural selection is testable Individuals within a population are variable Variations are at least partly genetic Individuals vary in reproductive success  Success is not random Fitness is in the individualLecture 7 (February 4) Can evolution make new traits? New genotypes via independent assortment and crossing over Genetic mutation can occur during meiosisIs evolution working toward perfection? Compromises between opposing selective forcesNew traits from old Carnivorous plants: turning defective traits into offensive ones. Sticky tape like surface came from plants defensive traitsEvolution of Darwinism Evolutionary biology changes just like everything else Darwin was not infallible  We have been building on his ideas for 150 yearsModern synthesis Evolution from small genetic changes in population due to natural selection/ genetic drift Macroevolution – speciation and diversification of taxa is from accumulation of micro evolutionary change Genetic mutations generate new alleles randomly over time Alleles passed from parent to offspring Some alleles confer fitness differences and these will increase in populationRead 3.7 and review how to read a phylogenetic treeLecture 8 (February 6)Chapter 4Phylogenetic trees - Polytomies- o Soft – uncertaintyo


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