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GSU CRJU 3410 - Biological Theories

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CRJU 3410 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Biological Theories II. Origins of Biological Explanation III. Origins of Biological TheoriesIV. PhysiognomyV. Phrenology VI. Criminal AnthropologyVII. Criminal Anthro continuesVIII. American Criminal Anthropology IX. Criminal Body TypesX. Primitive Biological TheoriesXI. Genetics and Crime Outline of Current Lecture I. Biological TheoriesII. Biochemistry and CrimeIII. Chemical Dysfunctions and CrimeIV. Food and Crime V. NHVI. Hormones and CrimeThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.VII. Neurological Theories VIII. Assessing Biochemical ExplanationsIX. Strengths and WeaknessesCurrent LectureI. Biological Theoriesa. Criminals are Physiologically different from noncriminalsi. Caused rather than free will (in your make up)b. Early biocriminologistsi. Behave different because they are structurally differentii. Biologically inferiorc. Modern biocriminologistsi. Behavior is the result of a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors II. Biochemistry and Crimea. Human Life depends on an array of chemicalsb. Brains are susceptible to biochemical imbalancesc. Brain’s Functionsi. Integrates and processes infoii. Serves as a storage and retrieval system for info d. ANS, CNS, and the brain function like a computere. The autonomic nervous system (ANS)i. Digestion, respiration, and heartbeatii. Neurochemicals enable these processesf. The central nervous system (CNS)i. The brain and spinal cordii. Neurochemicals maintain flow of information between ANS and CNSg. Neurotransmittersi. Fast acting neurochemicalsIII. Chemical Dysfunctions and Crimea. Substance Abuse Related Neurotransmitters: Dopamine & Endorphinsb. Dopamine (upper)i. Regulates mood & affect; AND motivation and reward processesc. Endorphins (downer)i. Relieves pain; enables to deal with stressd. Crime Related Neurotransmitters i. Low levels associated with a lack of impulseii. Serotonin and norepinephrine IV. Food and Crimea. Vitamine deficiencies, poor eating habits, and low blood sugar levelsi. Related to hyperactivity and aggression b. Twinkie Defense (Dan White)i. Body builder that ate a box of twinkies and went crazy and killed people. ii. Lacked mens rea from eating to many twinkies V. Neurotoxicity Hypothesis (NH)a. Chemical imbalances in heavy metals/other toxins disrupts normal brain chemistryb. Lead, Cadmium, and Mercuryi. Heavy metals which can affect inhibitory mechanismsii. Linked to homicide and other violent crimesc. Manganesei. Lowers levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrined. May contain a class/race bias VI. Hormones & Crimea. Hormonesi. Chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine system (slow acting)b. Progesterone and Estrogen (female sex hormones)i. Give to male sex offenders to lower their sex driveii. PMS Defense1. Lower levels of estrogen associated with aggressiveness c. Testosterone (male sex hormones)i. Linked to inappropriate conductii. Balanced influence model1. Testosterone contributes indirectly to crime VII. Neurological Crime Theoriesa. Neurophysiologyi. Looks at CNS and ANS for explanations b. Brian Physiology (limbic system)i. Brain Insults1. Injuries to brain2. Can lead to defective brain functioning ii. Brain Tumors and Lesionsc. CNS Disordersi. Learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and hyperactivity VIII. Assessing Biochemical Explanations a. Very Intuitivei. Know brain damage will affect behavior1. Accounts for small portion of crime b. Addictions and crime correlatedc. NJ may eventually explain some criminalityd. Major Criticisms follow patterns: i. Methodological issuesii. Causal ordering problemsiii. Overstated cases IX. Strengths and Weaknessesa. Strengthsi. Provides logical explanationsii. Support in the scientific communityiii. Provides answers to irrational criminal conduct b. Weaknessesi. Same problems as genetic researchii. There are many alternative explanationsiii. Even if it exists, is society willing to view them as nonvoitional


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