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NAU PHI 150 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PHI 150 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide 1. Empiricism: theory that knowledge is derived from experience2. Rationalism: the view that we can attain some knowledge independent of experience3. Metaphysics: the study of what there is and how those things relate to each other4. Phroenesis: the ability to find the mean between extremes and thus to act virtuously5. Unity of virtues: Socratic view that courage, wisdom, self-control, etc. are really the same thing6. Socrates criteria for a definition: must be universal, including relevance and excluding irrelevance, cannot be an example, and must identify the quality that places it into a certain class or kind7. Dualism: the view that there are two kinds of things, for example: form and matter, or mind and body8. Conceptualism: the view that the universals are mind dependent.9. Aporia: state of perplexity, usually a result of elenchus10.Socratic method: dialogue used to answer a question challenging his partners controversial beliefs, through rigorous questioning11.Elenchus: putting to the test; refutation12.Plato's triparitate theory of the soul: 1: rational (learning and reason) 2: appetitive(physical desires) and 3. Spirited (emotions)13.Eudamonia: human flourishing, "good spirit"14.Plato's theory of the forms: the world has an underlying order/structure, reality has two levels or aspects15. Platonic dualism: splitting the body from the soul16. Teleology: argument that the universe shows beauty and must be a product of the creator.17.Virtue (arête): two types, intellectual and moral. Moral is the result of a habit, and we become virtuous by action.18. Academic skepticism: view that knowledge is impossible19. Virtue ethics: a system of ethics taking issue of virtue and character as a central20. Aristotle's theory of the soul: soul  rational and irrational  rational: contemplative and deliberative, irrational: appetitive and nutritive. Be able to define weakness of will (akrasia). Akrasia on this account turns out to be the appetitive part of the soul disobeying the rational part of the soul. We can know what we ought to do, and yet be overcome by our desires, and so act contrary to reason. When this occurs, we feel guilty, which is the spirited part of the soul reinforcing the superiority part of the soul. Explain pyrrohonism. This is an ancient Greek form of skepticism founded by Pyrrho of Elis (360 - 275 BC). It claims that there is not adequate evidence to determine whether or not knowledge is possible, so one must suspend judgment on all questions pertaining to knowledge. This is opposed to academic skepticism, which makes the claim that knowledge is impossible.Understand Plato's argument for the immortality of the soul:1. The forms are incapable of change. Forms don’t have parts. 2. Objects in the sensible world are subject to change. 3. The unchanging things can only be perceived with the mind, while changing things are perceived through the senses.4. Thus, Plato distinguishes between the visible and invisible. 5. The body is akin to the visible whereas the soul is akin to the invisible.6. Therefore, if things in the invisible (intelligible) world are not subject to change, the soul is not subject to change. 7. The soul is an animating principle that always brings life with it. 8. Therefore, the soul as invisible and changeless, is


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