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URI BIO 242 - Chemical Reactions

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BIO 242 1st Edition Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture I. AnnouncementsII. HomeostasisIII. Chemistry reviewOutline of Current Lecture II. AnnouncementsIII. Chemical Reactionsa. Introducing reactantsb. Defining kinetic energy and diffusionIV. Enzymesa. Introducing enzymesb. Defining proteins and catalystV. Organic vs. Inorganica. ExceptionsVI. Acids & Basesa. Defining pH, acid, baseb. Acid vs. basesVII.The Cella. Introducing the components of a cellb. Defining cytoplasm, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lumen,organelles, ICF,ECF, ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER.c. Two types of ribosomesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.d. Two kinds of ERCurrent Lecture1. Announcementsa. Exam # 1 moved to Feb. 12th due to weather conditionsb. The first three Camtasia’s should be available by Thursday. Is based on lecture material necessary to be successful in this course that she does not have time in class to cover. She will connect the links to the Sakai site in the resources section of the course.c. Mastering A&P HW #1 and 2 are available at this time make sure to finish them before the due date!d. Top Hat begins on Thursday in class so make sure you understand how to use it.2. Chemical Reactionsa. IMPORTANT: CO2 (g) + H2O (l)  H2CO3 (aq)Reactants Productsi. This example will be used throughout the semester. It is important to realize thatit is balanced. 1 carbon, 2 hydrogen, and 3 oxygen total on both the reactant andproduct sides of the equation. ii. Reactants are also known as substratesb. Potential Exam question: Is this reaction balanced? i. Know how to tell whether an reaction is balancedc. Kinetic energy- molecules are always in motion.d. Diffusion- movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.3. Enzymesa. Proteins- b. Catalysts- speed up reaction rates c. Enzymes are specific for the reactions they catalyze.i. Enzymes are not altered/not changed during the reaction1. This means the enzyme is recyclable or can be used over and over again.ii. Example: H2O + CO2 carbonic anhydrase H2CO31. This reaction would occur randomly 100 seconds for 1 reaction without an enzyme.2. 1 second for 1,000,000 reactions with enzyme. d. Enzymes are very pH and temperature sensitive i. If either changed too much the enzyme will change its shape therefore not fit the designated active site.e. Digestion of carbohydrates actually begins in our mouths.4. Inorganic vs. Organica. Exceptions:i. Carbon dioxide (CO2)  inorganicii. Carbon monoxide (CO)  inorganic5. Acids & Basesa. pH- (potential hydrogen) - the measure of the concentration of the hydrogen ion in a solution.i. Neutral pH = 7ii. Acidic pH = anywhere from 6 to 01. The closer to 0 the pH of a solution is, the more caustic and acidic it is.iii. Basic pH = anywhere from 8 to 141. The closer to a pH of 14, the more caustic (concentrated and dangerous)or basic the solution is.b. Acid- yields the hydrogen ion (H+)c. The stronger the acid the concentration H+ ions, the more free H+, the more H+ disassociate.d. Note: it’s only the free H+ ions contribute to the acidity of the solution!e. NOTE: a strong base is going to be just as caustic as a strong acid.f. Human blood= a tiny bit basic6. The Cella. Cells are compartmentalized i. Cell membrane- made up of lipids and are semipermeable1. Semipermeable - ii. Note : compartmentalized organelles means that they are membrane enclosediii. A good system = efficient  different functions going on in each compartment (surrounded by a membrane).b. Definitions i. Cytoplasm- Includes everything inside the cell except the nucleus. Consists of two main components: the cytosol and the organelles.ii. Cytosol-the gel-like intracellular fluid.iii. Organelles- structures made up of a variety of biomolecules that carry out special functions in the cell.iv. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - consists of an elaborate network of membranes enclosing an interior compartment called the lumen.v. Lumen- the interior cavity of a hollow organ or vessel.vi. Intracellular fluid (ICF) - fluid located inside a cell.vii. Extracellular fluid (ECF) - fluid located outside a cell. viii. Rough ER- ER that is closest to the nucleus and has ribosomes. Looks like flattened sacsix. Smooth ER- ER furthest from the nucleus and no ribosomes. Consists of tubules and has a “smooth” appearance because there are no ribosomes attached.x. Ribosomes- site of protein synthesis. Proteins are made on ribosomes! Consists of complexes of rRNA and proteins.c. Two types of ribosomesi. Free/floating ribosomesii. Attached ribosomes1. Released from the cell OR2. Shipped and used in other organelles OR3. Used as part of a membrane (ex: cell membrane, organelle membrane)iii. Once made on the attached ribosomes, will be released into the lumen of the rough ER where they will be modified. (The ribosomes are not finished at this stage yet!)1. Therefore, the ribosome needs to go to the Golgi apparatus2. Vesicular transportation vesicle through the cytosol to the Golgi apparatus (has to be isolated from the cytosol otherwise can damage the cell!)a. The ribosomes synthesis is completed in the Golgi (Modified to its finished state in the Golgi)b. Then they are sorted c. & packaged according to their final destinationd. Two types of ERi. Rough ER and Smooth ERii. The membrane of rough ER is continuous on one side with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope, and on the other side with the smooth


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