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CMU HDF 100 - Theories, Genetics, and Conception

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HDF100 1st Edition Lecture 2 Outline of Last Lecture I. Purpose of a TheoryII. DefinitionsA. Multi DirectionalB. Multi ContextualC. Multi CulturalD. Multi DisciplinaryE. ResiliencyF. ResearchIII. TheoriesA. Types of TheoriesB. Psychoanalytic TheoryC. Freud’s PsychoSexual TheoryOutline of Current Lecture III. Theories (cont.)A. Learning TheoryB. WatsonC. Classical ConditioningD. Operant ConditioningE. Social Cognitive TheoryF. Maturation TheoryG. Cognitive PerspectiveH. Information ProcessingIV. GeneticsA. GeneB. ChromosomeC. DNAD. ConceptionV. ConceptionA. TwinsB. Down SyndromeC. GenotypeD. PhenotypeE. Length of PregnancyF. Germinal StageCurrent LectureIII. Theories (cont.)A. Learning Theory● aka Behaviorism● Nurture shapes individual● Grand Theory of human development● Focuses on sequences and processes by which behavior is learnedB. Watson● If psychology were a true science, you’d have to study what you see and measure - if you study behavior, you can learn anything● ALL learning is based on behaviorC. Classical Conditioning● Pavlov- pairing a neutral stimulus with a meaningful oneD. Operant Conditioning● Skinner- reinforcement● Positive- positive when added● Negative- positive when removedE. Social Cognitive Theory● Bandura- learning from observation - no experience needed● Controversy with Nurture vs Nature● Nurture = Behaviorist● Nature = MaturationF. Maturation Theory● Nature● Developmental changes in body or behavior is the result of aging● Just the way you are● Milestones- gaining abilities at specific predictable times - in all the genes● Twin studies, personality traits, and family similarities support MaturationG. Cognitive Perspective● Piaget - Grand Theory - StagesH. Information Processing● The brain is like a computer● Emergent TheoryIV. GeneticsA. Gene● Basic unit of heredity transmission● Regulates development of traitsB. Chromosome● Carrier of genes, 23 PairsC. DNA● Molecular basis of heredityD. Conception● Gametes - ova & sperm● Zygote - single cell forms● 22 Similar sets of chromosomes and a 23rd XX or XY● 52/48 Male to Female● Conception, duplication, division, differentiation (8-cell stage specialization)V. ConceptionA. Twins● Monozygotic (Identical) - exact DNA● Dizygotic (Fraternal) - 2 Ova fertilized by 2 spermB. Down Syndrome● 21st Chromosome extraMiscarriage = spontaneous abortionMales at risk carry on X chromosomeHemophiliaMuscular dystrophyC. Genotype● Entire genetic inheritanceD. Phenotype● Person’s actual appearance and behavior● Genetic and environmental influencesE. Length of Pregnancy● 266 Days or 40 weeks or 9mosF. Germinal Stage● First 14 DaysEmbryonic Stage- 3rd Through 8th weekFetal Stage- 9th week through birth● Starts at Conception/Ends at Implementation● Ova released down fallopian tube● Sperm “swims” up tube to meet ova● Cell division (8 Cell differentiation)● Blastocyst- Fluid filled ball of cells - separate to be organs● Low survival rate - failure to implanta. Rare - implant in fallopian tube (Ectopic)● 2 weeks - 2 distinct masses Outer = placenta Inner = Embryo● Embryo/Fetus attached by umbilical cord● Mother connected by blood vessels - baby might not have same blood type so the baby’s blood and mother’s blood cannot mix● Placenta does not reduce risk to baby - nutrients pass from mother to baby● Amniotic Sac surrounds embryo/fetus - fluid protects


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