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Wright ANT 2100 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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ANT 2100 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 4 – 10Lecture 4 (1/21)-When homeostasis occurs, there is a normal range in which your body should be maintained, yet there are many changes that go on throughout the body such as being too hot or too cold. The body is constantly self-regulating itself to maintain homeostasis. Regulators, Receptors, and Effectors Visual Aid Figure 2 shows how the body responses to change. The regulator is the homeostatic value or normal range of the body; the receptors detect changes within the body and relay that information to the regulator, the regulator transports that information to the effectors which drive conditions towards the set point (i.e. when you get hot, the temperature in your body rises above the normal range, that change is detected by the receptors, that information is then transported to the regulators where the normal range is maintained, that is then transported to the effectors which carry out the changes to return the body back to its original set point which will cause you to sweat to cool the body down) REGULATORSRECEPTORSEFFECTORS-Negative feedback. Negative feedback involves (homeostatic mechanism) the return of the set point (normal range in response to a change in the set point it maintains homeostasis. As you can see it shows as your body temperature rises above 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (the normal range) you begin to sweat more and as the temperature goes down you begin to shiver. -Positive feedback does not contribute to homeostasis. The normal set point changes in response to changes in the normal set point. (i.e. pregnancy) Lecture 5 (1/23)Summary of aerobic cellular respiration using glucose: 36-38 ATP molecules produced 2 net ATP molecules from glycolysis2 ATP molecules from Krebs Cycle32-34 ATP from electron transport chain 6 CO2 molecules produced7 H2O molecules producedHeat produced I. Carbohydrates (CH2O)a. Polar, soluble in water b. Used to make ATP c. Provide structures d. Form bulk (fiber) II. Monosaccharides a. Monomers of carbohydrate b. From 3 to 9 carbons (5-6 most important for humans)c. Six carbons: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose d. Five carbons: Deoxyribose, Ribose III. Disaccharidesa. Pairs of monosaccharides linked together b. Maltose: glucose+glucosec. Sucrose: glucose+fructosed. Lactose: glucose+galactose IV. Polysaccharides a. Many monosaccharides linked together b. Starch: Storage form of glucose in plants c. Glycogen: Storage form of glucose in the body d. Fiber: Indigestible carbohydrate, water-soluble and water-insoluble form V. Lipids (fat)a. Used to make ATPb. Not soluble in waterc. Lower ratio of oxygen and carbond. Less polar e. Soluble in lipid components VI. Triglyceride/Triacylglycerola. Majority of lipids in the body b. Fatty acids are the monomers if lipids c. Saturated fat- single bond between carbonsd. Unsaturated fat- one or more double bonde. Monounsaturated fat- one double bondf. Polyunsaturated fat- more than one double bondVII. Phospholipids a. Glycerol molecule+ two fatty acids+ phosphate molecule VIII. Cholesterol a. Used to make steroids b. High density lipoprotein (HDL)= “good” c. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)= “bad”d. Saturated fat increases LDL and decreases HDL e. Unsaturated fat decreases LDL and increases HDL IX. Steroids a. Derived from cholesterol b. Composed of 4 separate carbon ringsc. What is attached to the rings characterizes a steroid X. Ketonesa. Ketogensis- production of ketones b. Derived from fatty acids Visual Aid Fatty acids Acetyl COA Ketones XI. Eicosanoids a. Derived from fatty acids b. Prostaglandins1. Found and produced in nearly all tissues 2. Have numerous physiological effects on the body c. Thromboxanes 1. Produced by platelets 2. Constricts blood vesselsd. Prostacyclins 1. Produced by endothelial cells 2. Dilate blood vessels e. Leukotrienes 1. Produced by leukocytes and mast cells 2. Constrict airways 3. Sustain inflammatory reactionsLecture 6 (1/26) Proteinsa. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogenb. Most contain sulfurc. Proteins are made up of amino acids (monomers of proteins) d. Peptide (very small proteins) e. Polypeptide (small proteins)Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a. Nucleotides arranged in a double-stranded helix a. 46 DNA molecules contained in the nucleus b. 1 DNA molecule contained in the mitochondriac. Made up of genes d. Most genes are recipes for proteins 1. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)a. work together to produce proteins 2. Messenger RNA (MRNA) a. Complimentary copy of a geneb. Used as a template to assemble a protein 3. Ribosomal RNA (RRNA) a. Unit of ribsomesb. Aids in protein assembly c. Reads MRNA 4. Transfer RNA (TRNA) a. Aids protein assembly b. transfers amino acids to form primary structure Lecture 7 (1/28) I. Protein synthesis a. Transcription 1. Process of producing mRNA 2. DNA separated and gene is exposed 3. MRNA is produced by making a complimentary of a copy of gene 4. Nucleotides and their bases arranged in groups of three called codons5. Each codon is the code for an amino acid b. Translation1. Formation of primary structure from information contained in MRNA 2. MRNA passes through and is read by a ribosome 3. TRNA carries specific amino acids to a ribosome c. Post-translational events 1. Amino acids is deleted 2. Carbohydrates added 3. Phosphate added d. Carbohydrate metabolism 1. Catabolism of glucose via glycolysis to form two pyruvic acids 2. Glucose is absorb by the digestive tract 3. Fructose and galactose is turned into glucose and taken in by the liver 4. Excess glucose can be converted into fatty acids 5. Lipogenesis- production of lipids occurs in liver and adipose tissue e. Lipid/Fat metabolism 1. Fatty acids 2. Beta-oxidation (catabolism of fatty acids) 3. Turns into acetyl-CoA 4. Then into a Ketone 5. There are 3 Ketones (acetoactic acid, B-hydroxybutyric, and acetone are ketones) f. Protein metabolism 1. Protein 2. Amino acid go through oxidative deamination (catabolism of amino acids) 3. Turns into ammonia 4. The liver turns the ammonia into urea II. Receptors The chemical binds to the receptor and cause stuff to happen. a. Specificity- binds to specific receptors b. Agonist (activator)- chemical that mimics another chemical, stimulates the action of the receptor c. Antagonist (blocker)- stops a receptor from working blocks receptorLecture 8 (1/30)I. Membrane Transport a. Selectively permeable1. Cell membrane allow only certain molecules to pass


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