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CMU BCA 101 - Triumph of Hollywood

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BCA 101 1st Edition Lecture 4Outline of Last Lecture I. Chapter 1 (Continued)H. Editing1. Business Drove Artistic Innovation2. PorterOutline of Current Lecture I. Chapter 1 (Continued)J. Birth to Maturity in 25 years1. Itinerant Film Exhibition2. Vaudeville Houses3. 1902 - First Store-front TheaterII. Chapter 2: The Triumph of HollywoodA. ProgressivesB. 3 Major Interacting Forces1. Industrialization2. Urbanization3. ImmigrationC. National Board of CensorshipD. 1920’s1. Stars are BornA. “Biograph Girl”B. Mary PickfordC. “Vamps”D. The “Contract System”E. The First Fan Magazine2. Move to California3. Birth of StudiosCurrent LectureIII. Chapter 1 (Continued)J. Birth to Maturity in 25 years (approx. 1900-1925)1. Itinerant Film Exhibitiona) scientific exhibitions, state fairs, etc.2. Vaudeville Housesa) variety show for mainly the lower classb) primarily a stage theater3. 1902 - First Store-front Theatera) aka: nickelodeon; by 1910: 5000 across the countryb) more theaters = increased demand for filmsAs a way of controlling the booming market, in 1908 the major film companies form the Motion Pictures Patent Company- aka “the Trust”An attempt at economic/industrial control but ends in 1915 because it violated the law for technically being a monopolyIV. Chapter 2: The Triumph of HollywoodE. Progressives1. Primarily church leaders, politicians, and social reformers2. warned of the dangers of movie goingF. 3 Major Interacting Forces - what fear of movies developed from1. Industrialization (manufacturing)i. agriculture > industrialization2. Urbanizationi. rural > urban, factory workers // 12 hour shifts > went home to crowded tenements. nickelodeons (often open 24hrs) used alcohol as primary source of leisure.3. Immigrationi. big theaters were often packed with immigrants > led to the upperclass focusing on broadcasting that the movies were a dangerous place… fights often broke out. criticism turned onto the films. to head off attacks, the industry formedG. National Board of Censorship1. Formed in 1909, later renamed NAtional Board of Review2. First example of industry self-regulation3. American film industry has never been Federally regulatedH. 1920’s1. film becomes highly departamental > extremely efficient factory system4. Stars are Born - stars not identified by name, very competitive fieldA. “Biograph Girl”i. Florence Lawrence, IMP hires > finally debuts name (Independent MotionPictures - later part of Universal Studios)B. Mary Pickfordi. “Little Mary” 2nd biggest international movie star (behind Charlie Chapman) in the 19-teens and 20’sC. “Vamps”i. Persona: public image displayedii. Theda Bera - anagram for “death arab,” beautiful, but dangerousD. The “Contract System”i. Writers, Directors, Stars, etc.ii. essentially commodities owned by the studios - contracts done by yearsiii. ex. Universal - 7 years, can only make movies produced by Universal for 7 years & can only do the ones they tell you to doiv. could make trades and exchanges until about the 1960’sE. The First Fan Magazine - driven by popularity of starsi. Photoplay(1912)ii. Pickford’s marriage to action star Douglas Fairbanks made entertainment magazines and gossip columns a permanent part of movies5. Move to CaliforniaAway from Edison and New Jersey thugs, there’s sunshine and scenery - locations such as ocean, desert, and mountains6. Birth of Studios (applies to all but United Artists - Chaplin, Fairbanks, Pickford, Griffith - 1919)Started mostly by 1st or 2nd Generation immigrantsMainly Jewish Americans that started as businessmenConverted previously existing stores and shops into Nickelodeons > bought/built theaters and chains for movies and vaudevilleThe move to Cali meant the creation of production facilities - Studio


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