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O-K-State CDIS 4433 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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CDIS 4433 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 3Lecture 1 (January 15)- “Aphasia is the loss or impairment of language skills in adults who have had a history of language skills with the range of normal variation. The loss or impairment is associated with recent cerebral pathology or trauma.”o In its pure form, aphasia only affects expressive and receptive language. o However – It rarely occurs in its pure form.- Phrenologyo Study of bumps on the head associated with behavioro Pseudo-scienceo Began a cause-effect line of thinkingo Attributed to Franz Gall in the 1700s and 1800s- Aphasia is associated with agraphia, alexia, acalulia, loss of cognition, and paralysis- Localizationistso Paul Broca French neurosurgeon 1860s – study of cause and effect of a particular type of language disorders Location – “Third left frontal convolution.” - Today known as Broca’s Area. Characteristics – nonfluent speech, good auditory skills, telegraphic speech, etc.o Carl Wenicke German neuropsychiatrist – Published about 10 years after Broca Found aphasia syndrome that contrasted dramatically with Broca’s. Characteristics – Poor auditory reception, fluent, talkative, paraphasias, jargon, etc. Location – Posterior, superior portion of temporal lobe.- The moderate views of Aleksandr Luria greatly influenced today’s thinking.- Language dysfunction can occur on either side.Lecture 2 (January 20) Chapter 2- The Action potential process is like the wavetravelling around a football stadium.- For a few seconds after an action potential,another one cannot occur.Multipolar – afferent or efferentBipolar – afferent onlyUnipolar – afferent onlyAction Potential begins following latency after stimulation. Rest is about -70 mV, Spike potential is about 35+ mV, Neg. AP is about -100 mV, and Pos AP is about -60 mV.- Neurotransmitter typeso Amino Acids o 2. Amines (Acetylcholene, Dopamine, Epinephrine, histamine, norepinephrine, serotonin,…) These are the most common types we hear abouto Peptides- Nervous SystemDivisionso CNS- Brain and Spinal Cordo PNS – Everything else CN V – Trigeminal- Motor to muscles of mastication (masseter, temporalis, external and internal pterygoid) – often checked with diadochokinesis- Sensory from head, neck, sinuses, meninges and typmanic membrane. 3 branches 1) opthalmic, 2) maxillary, 3) mandibular CN VII – Facial- Motor to all facial muscles of facial expression (excludes those ofmastication) Additionally motor to scalp, auricle, stapedius, stylohyoid, post. belly of digastric. – also to all glands of the headexcept the parotid gland- Sensory – taste ant. 2/3 of tongue, soft palate, ear and typmanic membrane CN VIII – Acoustic (auditory or vestubulo-cochlear) - Sensory only – Hearing and balance.  CN IX – Glossopharyngeal- Motor – pharynx (including pharyngeal constrictors), stylopharyngeal muscle, and parotid gland- Sensory – taste posterior 2/3 of tongue, sensation to faucial pillars, soft palate CN X– Vagus Motor – pharynx, base of tongue, larynx, parasympathetic to neck, thorax, and abdomen. (2 important branches for SLP – Superior Laryngeal nerve and Recurrent Laryngeal nerve) Sensory – pharynx, larynx, (posterior portion of ear), throacic and abdominal viscera CN XI – Spinal accessory (accessory)- Motor – some innervation to pharynx, upper larynx, uvula and velum. Other neck muscles including trapezius and sternocleidomastoid.- (Thought to join with CN X to supply part of the superior laryngeal nerve branch to the upper larynx) CN XII – Hypoglossal Motor – Strap muscles of neck and tongue (stylohyoid, mylohyoid, inferior belly of omohyoid, sternothyroid, styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, geniohyoid, and intrinsic muscles of the tongue.) Memory Tricks- On old Olympus’ towering top, a Finn and German Vended at (some) hopps.- (olfactory, optic, occulomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, acoustic, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory (spinal), hypoglossal- Some say, “Marry money.” But, my brother says, “Big brains matter most.” - sensory, sensory, motor, motor, both, motor, both, sensory, both,both, motor, motor Spinal Nerves- 31 Pairo 8 Cervicalo 12 Thoracico 5 Lumbaro 5 Sacralo 1 Coccygeal- The 31 pairs of spinal nerves exit from between the vertebrae. Note that cauda equina begins at about L-1. (Dorsal and right lateral views.) Misalignments of the vertebrae can pinch exiting motor and sensory nerves.- The 31 pairs of spinal nerves extend laterally to supply the entiresurface of the body. - Peripheral Nerves (Spinal nerves) running laterally as they exit the spinal cord. Note Cauda Equina. Neural Pathways- Ascending = Afferent (sensory)- Descending = Efferent (motor)o CNS Organization Spinal Cord – organization (Netter slide) – Route of spinal nerves Brainstem (SC passes through the Foramen Magnum of the occipital bone) inferior to superior- Medulla Oblongata aka myencephalon (decussation of Pyramids)– basic body functions (resp, digestion, heart rate, blood pressure) – (Injury here is life threatening)- Pons aka metencephalon – relay area to cerebellum- Midbrain aka mesencephalon connection to thalamus (relay area) Cerebellum – posterior to brainstem. Coordinates movement. Diencephalon – Houses the thalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus and hypothalamus. Thalamus – sensory relay to the cortex. Major connectional area.  E. Basal Ganglia – surround the thalamus. Help control movement and provide interconnections for the extrapyramidal system. 1. Caudate Nucleus – C-shaped (like ventricles) 2. Lenticular Nucleus – 2 parts a. Putamen (more peripheral) b. Globus Pallidus (more medial) 3. Amygdaloid Nucleus – emotion 4. Substantia Nigra (maybe?) 5. Others (Reticular formation?) * Problems w/ BG may cause things like Parkinson’s Disease or Huntington’s Chorea Connectional Fibers – 1. Projection – Ascending and descending (Pyramidal system review – interconnects with spinal nerves at synapse) Fig 2-10 2. Association – Interconnect areas within a hemisphere. (Short and long fibers) Fig 2-11 3. Commissural – Interconnect left and right hemispheres. (Most important (there are others) – Corpus Callosum 300 to 400 million fibers) Fig 2-12 (Discuss split brain studies) Cerebral Cortex (Cerebrum)


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