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CMU BCA 101 - Invention and Innovation

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BCA 101 1st Edition Lecture 2Outline of Last Lecture I. Purpose of ClassII. Ways to Look at FilmIII. Reaction PaperOutline of Current Lecture I. Chapter 1 Invention and InnovationA. Film started as a BusinessB. “Auteur Theory”C. Movies Resulted FromD. PioneersE. Kinetoscope and the Black MariaF. ProjectionG. Early FilmsCurrent LectureI. Chapter 1 Invention and InnovationA. Film started as a business1. Inventors making and selling gadgets- VERY different formB. “Auteur Theory” - Artist in French; Focus on film as Art1. The idea that the best films result from the clear artistic vision of a single person who takes control and responsibility for the whole film2. A director who also writes and edits the film they directeda) Ex. Charlie Chaplin-starred,wrote, directed, editedOther Auteurs include: Woody Allen, Spike LeeC. Movies Resulted From1. Popular/Public entertainmentsa) magic lantern shows(1600s) early “motion” pictures2. Physiological Phenomenaa) persistence of vision- an image remains on the retina for a fractionof a second.3. Technological Developmentsa) Stroboscopic Toys - Drum spins on table at right speed while someone looks through spinning slots and there appears to be a moving pictureb) Photography (mid 1800s)The first people to take advantage of this combination were NOT artists. they were inventors or businessmen.*Competition drives innovation*D. Pioneers1. Muybridge and the “bet”a) used multiple camera triggered by strings to capture images of a horse running to see if the horse ever had all 4 hooves off the ground at a single time.2. Mareya) the first to use a single camera to shoot multiple pictures (camera looked like a rifle and therefore, “shoot” was coined)3. Edison (a magnificent ba***rd)a) part scientist, part social reformer, all-around manipulative businessmanb) wanted to develop motion pictures to help sell his phonoraph4. Dicksona) an Edison employee; invented a camera - the kinetograph, and a viewer - the kinetoscope.b) Beginning about 1890, he made 20-second films like “Fred Ott’s Sneeze” and bis of dancing, juggling, re-enacted boxing matchesE. Kinetoscope and the Black Maria1. Magic lanterns and early projectors were unpredictable (large fires, etc)2. Edison thought that single viewer kinetoscopes would be more profitable3. Kinetoscope parlors popped up all over by 18934. If you saw a movie in the US before 1900 it was on a kinetoscope5. In order to meet demand, Edison/Dickson invented/built the “first movie studio” studio=factory aka the Black Maria6. The Black Maria: raised roof to get sunlight but the sun moves, so it was built on a turn table to increase mass productiona) Early dominance, early mistake: Edison overlooked the potential of projectionF. Projection1. Edison overlooked patenting his gear in Europe, where the real developments happened2. France: the Lumiere Brothers. 1894-1895 the unveil of the cinematograph(camera and projector)3. “Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory” and “Arrival of the Train at La Ciotat”(1895) were projected on screen in the Ground Cafe in Paris on December 28, 1895 (“Birthday of Movies”)4. Edison responds: buys (from Armat) the rights to the Vitascope (life watcher) aka a projector and debuts in April 1896G. Early Films1. a “cinema of attractions” usually one shot (no edits) - camera in a fixed position- especially Edison/Black Maria2. Objective Camera (to be separated/removed) - no movement towards ir away from scene (EDISON)3. Subjective Camera - movement towards camera4. Portable Cinematograph allowed Lumiere films to be shot outdoors often with action moving toward or away from the


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