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UB NUR 250 - Piaget

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NUR 250 1st Edition Lecture 4Theories need to be in KWLA to back up you arguments. Major Developmental Theories • Biologic• Evolution-Darwin– Attachment theories– early, Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest eg. Entrance into a competitive program• Human genome• Developmental Neuroscience• Pyscho-dynamic• Psychosexual-Freud• Psychosocial-Erikson• Behavioral• Classic conditioning-Pavlov• Operant Conditioning-Skinner• Social Learning Theory-Bandura• Cognitive: – Cognitive (Adaptation)- Piaget– Social-Cognitive- Vygotsky• Systems view: Multiple systems• Bio-ecological-BronfenbrennerDarwin: Theory of Evolution• Universal common ancestry• Survival of the fittestFreud Psychoanalytic theoryA guiding light for successors• Psycho sexual interpretation of development– Oral: birth to 1yr– Anal: 1-3 yrs.– Phallic: 3-5 yrs.– Latency: 5 yrs- puberty– Genital: Puberty to adult• Three personality components– Id– Ego– Superego• Psychosexual interpretation correlates the ages. Too little or too much gratification in any of these stages can prevent a child from moving to the next phase. • Three personality components develop in the first three stages Erikson• Stages Theory of Psychosocial Development– Eight stages over the lifespan– Series of normative challenge• Changes in physical domain in light of social challenges– Outcomes are defined in personality strengths of weaknessesPiaget: Cognitive Developmental Theory• Universal constructivist :: humans construct their understanding in predictable ways. • Cognition develops through experience• Adaptation models• Ages and stages– Progression of thought• We will explore Piaget, particularly during preschoolersVygotsky• Physiologic processes plus culture– Language• Coo, baba, first word• Social context of reinforcement– Key principles• Scaffolding : support system to build on knowledge• Zone of Proximal Development : period of time in which something new is accomplished. Test Yourself: Theorist Part I1. I believe that children should be free to learn by exploration and play.Piaget2. I believe that babies use mouthing behaviors for self gratification.Freud3. I believe that individuals adapt to new situations by assimilating and accommodating.Piaget4. I believe that children learn best when they are allowed to play under the guidance of an adult.Vygotsky5. I believe that children learn best when gently challenged to a higher level of learning.Vygotsky6. I believe that infant develop normally if they resolve the conflict of trust with their caretaker.EricksonMaslow: Self Actualization• Individual has unique needs• Change over time• First for levels are deficiency needs– Individual doesn’t feel accomplished even when needs are met• The last are growth needs• Self actualization is ultimate goal• Truth, beauty, justice, peace• Model is a hierachy• Progress toward this goal is in young adulthoodSchaie’s Life-Span Model of Cognitive Development- Cognitive model based on adult development- Based on the collection of cognitive abilities acquired during childhood and adolescence- Discontinuous change based on the successful cognitive application of the last phase- Not all ages relate to all stages and all levels-flexible use of intelligence in different ways in the lifespan- Acquiring knowledge- Achieving –choose a lifestyle, career, partner- Social responsibility/Executive period: solving problems for others in the family, workplace, community- Reorganization: retirement, relocating all the energy- Reingegration: taking life’s experiences to make sense of life; exploring the sense of purpose- Legacy/Wisdom: making plans for the end, passing on the important life information and family history/attributesBronfenbrenner• Model of Human Ecology• Individual/Child is the center circle– Concentric rings of developmental influence– Reciprocal interactions between all levels• Parents• Community • Society and laws• Encirlced by the dominant beliefs and


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