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UAB HY 105 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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HY 105 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 12Ch. 1- January 26- Ottoman; Asia minor , mediterranean , East Europe (Turkey)- Safavid : Persia (Iran)- Mughal: Afghanistan , India - collapse go Mongol empires and Black Death- military threat to Europe ; relative stability and period of Islamic cultural renaissance Similarities -Turk nomads from Central Asia-inspired by Islam- military conquest , warrior dominated societies - absolute monarchies- taxationDifferences-religions of conquered peoples-Muslim beliefs ( Sunni, Shiite, Sufi)-Akbar ( r. 1556-1605) and religious diversity in Mughal IndiaOttoman Empire ( dynasty 1261-1922)-Founded by Osman-Murad II ( r.1421-51) expands into Balkan Peninsula-Constantinople becomes Instabul in 1463-conquer Arab world , Balkans SE EuropeMehmet II ( “the conqueror”, r.1451-1481)-How did he conquer Constantinople ?-use of Western military technology , esp. cannon makers, divisions in Europe- Church of Hagia Sophia - harsh , arbitrary ruler, but tolerant of Jews and Christians - OE the equal of Europe until 1600- Suleiman ( the Magnificent )( r. 1520-1566)-carries the empire to furthest extent -157 , Battle of Lepanto , expansion stopped by Spain and alliesFebruary 2The Ottoman State-absolutist state; vizier and divan-succession ; “law of fratricide-Islamic law ; ulema-Janissaries : elite soldiers and govt office holders- slaves, “man of the sultan”; primarily from Christian population- ; status not inheritable - February 6Decline ( from late 17th century )-Janissaries did not adopt new military technology -maintain regulated economic system, European gains-internal problems-OE battles with Safavids and Mughals-Overall : too big to maintain1. Foundations, questions , commonalities continuation of previous movements , esp. Scientific Revolution an examination of the internal universe?Commonalities : tolerance, religious reform , govt. reform, human reason progressDeism natural religion and the Supeme BeingSome of the philosophies and their ideasJohn Locke , tabula rasaMontesquieu; Persian Letters; Spirit of the Laws , checks and balancesFrancois Marie Arouet , VOLTAIRE:The Scientific Revolution : Heaven and EarthFoundations and world views17th century deja vuOur place in the universe ; a spatial and metaphysical issueGeocentric or Heliocentric universe?Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century AD) and the Ptolemaic Universe : geocentric and infinite Aristarchus and the heliocentric universe (c.280 bce)Nicholas copernicus ( 1473-1543)-on the revolution of heavenly spheres ( 1543) ; a heliocentric universe, yet condemned and rejected -Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)Gailileo Galilei (1564-1642)telescope , a heliocentric universeStarry messenger (1610) ; “ false and absurd”Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems (1632)an appointment with the Inquisition Triumph of the Heliocentric Universethe printing press and the telescope from an Earth-centered universe to a Sun-centered universe Issac Newton (1642-1727)Principia ( 1687) , gravity , calculus laws of gravity“ if i have seen further than others, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants”.Bruno- astronomy Women and the Scientific Revolutioninformal educationMargaret Cavendish ( 1623-1673)-observations Upon Experimental Philosophy-Grounds of natural Philosophy (1668) : humans cant control nature-Maria Winklemann 1620-1720, German astronomer“crush the infamous thing”Candide: the best of all possible worlds?Denis Diderot and the Encyclopedia Later Philosophies and their ideaseconomics , physiocrats,laissez-faireAdam Smith ( 1723-1790): an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations(1776)-self-interest and the greater good of society concern with moral issuesThe woman questionpublic sphere and privates sphere Emilie du Chatelet (1706-1749),scientistElizabeth Vigee-Lebrun (1755-1842), painterMary Wollstoneeraft (1759-1997)-controversial lifestyle ;defender of French Revolution ; promoter of equal rights-A Vindication of the rights of woman Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( 1712-1778)Emile ; The Social contractthe “ general will” subordination to the common•Matt Ricci •Vasco de Gama •joint-stock companies•bourgeoisie•Dutch East India Company•Kongo kingdom•Mughal dynasty•Emperor Akbar •Nur Japan•Ming dynasty•examination system •Wanli Emperor•Emperor Sejong•Le dynasty •Tyotomi Hideyoshi•Tokugawa Shogunate•Martin Luther•Catholic Reformation•Galileo GalileiCh.17Evliya CelebiJanissaries SuleymanSafavid dynastyIsmaliAbbas IHasburg dynastyPhillip IIJohn CalvinThirtys Years’ WarCardinal RicheleiuLouis XIVPuritans Charles IBill of Rights Peter the GreatmercantilismCh.19 Olaudah Equiano Great Lakes region KimpaVita SahelSonghai EmpireAtlantic plantation system maroon communities manumissionAsante kingdomDahomey Triangular tradeSeven Years WarGrand Banks Act for the Abolition of the Slave tradeCh.20Xie QinggaoQing dynastyEmperor KangxiQianlongYangzi River ValleyTreaty of Nerchinsk Mcartney MissionCossacks Catherine the GreatAurangzebNader shahJoseph Francois Dupleix Battle of PlasseyLord Charles CornwallisSeclusion EdictsDutch learning YoshimuneCh.21Joseph BanksJames CookRene Descartes Sir Francis BaconIsaac NewtonCarl LinnaeusEnlightenmentJohn Lockelaissez fairephilosphiesVoltaire Mary Wollstencraft Encyclopediaenlightened despotsproblem of longitudeAfrican Association Great Trigonometrical ExpeditionTupaiaCh. 22Simon Bolivar George WashingtonDeclaration of independence Constitution of the united states of americaLouis XvI Third Estate National Assembly JacobinsNapoleon BonapartenationalismTouissaint L’OuvertureCongress of Vienna


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