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UTC GNSC 1150 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GNSC 1150 1st EditionExam# 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 11Lecture 1 (January 5)Syllabus quiz and overview, no test material covered.Lecture 2 (January 7)Introduction to Science and Society- Society is a group of people organized around a particular worldview (basic assumptions about reality) and set of values(core ideas, relationships, and activities that a person considers important)Worldviews and values are expressed through institutions (organization designed to perpetuate and protect a certain way of life) and artifacts/customs (things and behaviors that are readily visible in a society)- Science- demarcation problem (philosophy)o Science is a way of generating knowledge about the natural world and discovering the laws that govern the natural world.The Scientific MethodObserve, question, hypothesis, predict, experiment, conclusion.Not always exactly followed. Trial and error, guessing and accidental discovery also lead to scientific advances.Theory- a synthesis of a large body of facts and well-tested hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world. Theories evolve. Fact- a phenomenon about which competent observers can agree is true.Law or principle- a general scientific hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted.Hypothesis-a statement expressing a cause-effect relationship.Influential people in scientific discovery- Michael Faradayo Experimented with electricity and magnetismo Invented the generator-used in power plants to convert energy of motion into electricity - James Jouleo Provided conclusive evidence that heat was a form of energy.- William Thomson(Lord Kelvin)o Developed the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. - James Wato Developed the steam engine o Steam engine converts hear into useful motiono Helped advancement of scientific knowledgeSometimes technology drives scientific discovery, other times science drives technology.Lecture 3(January 12)Measurement and Units7 Fundamental Quantities and their Fundamental Units1. Length = meters (m)2. Time = seconds (s)3. Mass = kilogram (kg)4. Temperature = kelvin (K)5. Electric current = ampere (A)6. Amount of substance = mole (mol)7. Luminous Intensity = candela (cd)Fundamental qualities are expressed in two parts: a magnitude (a number) and a unitA unity is a fixed value of a physical quality that is used for the purpose of taking measurements.Mass is also a measure of inertia (sluggishness than an object exhibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, or change its state of motion in any way)Two Major Unit Systemso The metric system (also known as SI for Systeme International)o The imperial systemThe metric system uses powers of ten to define units smaller or larger than the base units, thus making it easier to use than the imperial system.Standard Metric Units and PrefixesPrefix Abbreviation Number Power of 10Giga G 1,000,000,000 10^9Mega M 1,000,000 10^6Kilo K 1,000 10^3Cent c 1/100 10^-2Milli m 1/1,000 10^-3Micro µ 1/1,000,000 10^-6Nano n 1/1,000,000,00010^-9Derived UnitsArea=length^2Volume=length^3Speed=length/timeMetric (SI)=meters/secondsMiles/Hours is most often usedDistance=speed x timeAnalysis of Units- Since every physical quality has both a magnitude and a unit, if math is done on the quantity, the same math must be done on the units.- Rules for operating on units:o In addition and subtraction, units must be the same.o Multiplication or division of two units creates a new unit.o In multiplication, a unit time itself is the unit squared.o In division, a unit in the numerator cancels the same kind of unit in the denominatorUnits of EnergyJoule (SI unit)Calorie: amount of heat energy required to raise 1kg of water by 1˚c1 Calorie=1000 calories 1 Calorie=4186 JBtu (British thermal unit): amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 pound of water by 1˚FLecture 4 (January 14)Energy is used in economics, labor, environment, international relations, housing, food, health, transportation, recreation and more.4 main energy sectorsCommercial, Industry, Residential, Transportation (uses the most oil)SI units Force=Newton (N)Energy=Joules (J)Power=Wat (W)=J/sLecture 5 (January 19)No class MLK dayLecture 6 (January 21)Energy Resources- Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) provide more than 80% of energy world wideThe U.S. has 4-5% of the world’s population, but consumes about 18% of the energy used worldwide-one of the highest energy consumption rates per capita.Problems with fossil fuels: Peak Oil- production rate of a new resource that is finite initially grows exponentially, but as thatresource becomes harder to extract, and the rate of production slows down, reaches a peak, then begins decreasing.- Hubbert Curve- M. King Hubbert predicted in the 1950’s that U.S. would reach peak oil between 1965 and 1970.Growing Energy Demand-Increase in demand depends on populationgrowth and lifestyle.Dependence on Foreign OilEnergy Crisis of 1973OPEC controls most of American imported oil. During the Arab-Israeli war OPEC embargoed oil imports to the U.S. and other western countries. This lead to oil shortages and price spikes forcing the U.S. to seek alternate methods of producing energy.Pollution and Climate ChangeBurning fossil fuels emits carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses which affect our climate. Burning coal produces acid rain and particulates. Burning gasoline produces chemical smog.Renewable Energy- Recycling- Energy sources that do not deplete over time- solar, wind, water, biomass (wood, biofuels ex. Ethanol)- Currently renewable energy accounts for less than 10% of U.S. energy needs. Food and Energy- 10% of total energy use goes into food production in America.- Some countries use 60-80% of their energy consumption on food production.- Farm equipment and fertilizer are fossil fuel dependent- Beef production is much more energy intensive than grainEnergy Conservation- Technical fix: design machines to do the same tasks with less energy. Ex. Increasing MPG in vehicles.- Lifestyle changes: consume less energy. Ex. Carpooling and recyclingTrash and Energy- American’s throw away 80 million tons of paper, 50 million tons of food and yard waste, 20 million tons of metal, and 25 million tons of plastic a year.- 4.3 lbs of garbage per person per day. Landfill numbers has gone down, but garbage has increased.Throwing away manufactured goods is throwing away energy.Products made from


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